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Wisdom of Solomon (Researcher: Robert Hayward):
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1.1 The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries).

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1.1 The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries).

1.1.4 The text introduces the governing voice, thereby indirectly marking its own boundedness: the first person governing voice is explicitly introduced for the first time without a name at 6:22-23, and continues speaking in first person into chapter 9, where (9:8, 12) it indirectly identifies itself as Solomon son of David, the builder of the Jerusalem Temple. The identification assumes knowledge on the reader's part of the biblical story of the Temple building in 1 Kings 6-8.

1.1.5 Important text witnesses attest to a heading which is not integrated with the body of the text or with any introductory frame, implying one or more of the kinds of information under 1.1.1–4: The heading "Wisdom of Solomon" accompanies the text as preserved in major codies of the Septuagint, namely Vaticanus (4th century); Sinaiticus (4th century); Alexandrinus (mid 5th century); and Venetus (eighth century). The Vetus Latina styles it "The Book of Wisdom"; while the Syriac translation refers to it as "The Book of the Great Wisdom of Solomon, son of David".

1.2 The text presents its internal sequence of sentences (or larger parts) as mirroring the objective relationships of components in the projected world (an objective order), or projects its subject matter as self-limiting (5.3.). See further under 4, 5.2–5 or 6: With hindsight, the reader recognizes an extended and coherent discourse on Wisdom under several headings: (for example) her character, qualities, and attributes; the means of acquiring Wisdom available to human beings; and "parade examples" of Wisdom's beneficial workings in Israel's history.

1.3 The text overall is shaped by a poetic or rhetorical-communicative pattern that is self-bounding (see further section 3): Throughout, the text has the outward appearance of poetry, determined by the consistent use in Greek form of the Hebrew parallelismus membrorum, such that the form of the text compares with Greek (LXX) translations of Hebrew books ascribed to Solomon (especially Proverbs, Song, and Qohelet) and to the non-scriptural text Psalms of Solomon.

1.5 The text presents a certain homogeneousness of form and/or contents, without claiming or projecting boundedness, and without being unified by a poetic or rhetorical form (i.e. 1.1, 1.2. and form-bounding points under 3 do not apply).

1.5.2 The ways in which smaller units hang together or follow on from each other (section 9) are repeated again and again: the discourse may be divided into three large text-parts sharing a common theme. They are often referred to as the book of eschatology (Wis. 1-5); the book of Wisdom (Wis. 6-9); and the book of history (Wis. 10-19). Within the third section a 'book of divine justice and human folly' is often described, 11:15-15:19.

1.7 The text’s Inventory profile should be seen in the light of the following further information on completeness, thematic progression, aesthetic effects, etc.: Overview of Parts: Scholars commonly understand the text as falling into three large sections. These are usually referred to as (a) The Book of Eschatology; (b) The Book of Wisdom; and (c) The Book of History. The chapters most often assigned to these sections are (a) 1-5; (b) 6-9; and (c) 10-19, although individual students may differ slightly in their allocation of text to each division. Within the third section of the text, some students delineate a "Book of Divine Justice and Human Folly" at 11:15-15:19. In addition, there are indirect markers for various segments of the text: these may be discerned at the start of component sections of the text, as, for example, at 1:1; 6:1 (second person plural imperatives); 9:1; 15:1 (openings of address to God). The text also displays a thematic and stylistic coherence, evidenced particularly by the use of poetic parallelism, which is present consistently, and throughout the text. Repetition of wording between the various sections of the text also creates a sense of unity: thus the notions of immortality and incorruption, mentioned at 2:23, recur at 3:4; 4:1; 8:13;, 17; 15:3; 16:8; Hades is named at 1:14, and thereafter at 2:1;; 16:13; 17:14; virtue is discussed at 4:1; 5:13; 8:7; and mentions of hope (3:4; 5:14; 13:10; 14:6; 15:10; 16:29); light (5:6; 7:10, 29; 16:28; 18:4) and knowledge of God (2:13; 5:7; 11:10; 13:1-3; 15:1-3; 16:16-18) bestride the text. Wisdom was almost certainly composed in Greek; and the use of parallelism, which is characteristic of the poetic books of the Hebrew Bible, creates the strong impression of a unity and thematic intent which ancient readers would have attributed to other biblical and LXX books like Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song (both in the Hebrew Bible and in LXX) which enjoyed Solomonic authorship.

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2.1 The information conveyed in the text defines the perspective of the governing voice in the following way:

2.1.2 The governing voice thematizes how it comes to know the text’s contents or its right to command obedience from the text’s addressee. Its perspective is presented as limited, referring either to evidence, or to personal experience (mere human knowledge): The governing voice’s knowing of the text’s contents is presented as in principle limited, by projecting its persona as human (Solomon), albeit as one who has learned from Wisdom, who appears as omniscient in 8:8 and throughout the section 7:22-8:8 especially.

2.1.2.2 The governing voice appeals to the projected addressee for a particular action, projecting limited knowledge or authority.

2.1.2.3 The governing voice suggests its information or advice is based on his or her own experiences, or on other knowledge filtered by reflections on personal experience: the experience of the first person governing voice, Solomon, is the means whereby information about Wisdom reaches the reader. His acquisition of her is given in a mini-biography (7:1-9:18) justifying Solomon's claim to speak about Wisdom with such authority.

2.1.3 Knowledge or authority of the text is presented as exceeding what the persona projected by the governing voice would ordinarily be able to achieve (e.g., supernatural or non-human mediators and informants): the first person governing voice, Solomon, explicitly and at length indicates the source for the knowledge of his perceptions. This source is Wisdom, and the text depends on this Wisdom for its content. The governing voice justifies and explains its epistemic viewpoint, particularly in chapters 7-9 demonstrating how it acquired Wisdom, and the effects of that acquisition.

2.1.4 The governing voice explicitly acknowledges that something mentioned in the text cannot be adequately expressed or conveyed: At 9:14-18, the governing voice reflects on the limitations of human knowledge in matters both earthly and heavenly, and the necessity of the divine gift of Holy Spirit for any human comprehension of God's counsel. These verses openly state what is frequently implicit in the book, and also find some expression in the governing voice's description of Wisdom as "the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of His goodness" (7:26).

2.2 A first-person voice imposes its perspective on all (or almost all) knowledge or norms conveyed in the text.

2.2.2 The first person voice identifies itself by name or uniquely identifying expression (once or repeatedly): Solomon identifies himself without using the name, see Wis. 6:22; 7:1-14, where the voice is described as the king who built the Temple (9:7-8), as reported of Solomon at 1 Kings 6-8; 2 Chronicles 3-6.

2.2.4 The number and gender of the first-person governing voice are as follows: the first person governing voice is explicitly introduced as singular and masculine, "I" (for example) 6:22 ff., and "king" (7:5; 9:7).

2.2.4.1 The first person singular is used.

2.2.4.4 The first person forms are marked for gender: The first person governing voice speaks of himself as masculine "king", for example, 7:5; 9:7.

2.4 The governing voice defines a horizon of knowledge as shared with the projected addressee by taking for granted the following linguistic usages or references (in selection):

2.4.1 Persons or unique objects referred to by proper name or by technical expression: divine titles (2.4.1.3.) and some geographical locations (2.4.1.4.).

2.4.1.3 for Gods/mythical figures/supernatural beings, etc., for example: The complete absence of proper names of human beings is to be contrasted with the large number of divine titles used, for example, Lord and God (throughout); Sovereign Lord of All (6:7; 8:3; 11:26; 13:5, 9); Father (14:3; 18:6; 19:6); Saviour (16:7); Almighty (7:25); Most High (5:15; 6:3); Creator (13:5). Angels are mentioned at 16:20; and diabolos, the "devil", at 2:24.

2.4.1.4 for locations, for example: these are very uncommon, being restricted to Pentapolis (10:6); the Red Sea (10:18; 19:7); and the Holy Land (12:3). This dearth of place names in the world is counterbalanced to some degree by the name of the mythical place Hades, which is mentioned at 1:14; 2:1;; 16:13; 17:14 (unless it is to be construed as a "personal" name, in which case it belongs with 2.4.1.3.).

2.4.1.6 for documents, texts, books, etc. (identified through being referred to or quoted), for example: if a written copy of the Torah is envisaged, the reference to "the divine Law" at 18:9 might be construed as indicating a document.

2.4.3 The text as a whole routinely employs the following language(s), knowledge of which is taken for granted: Greek, sometimes classical in style, often employing many well known Greek literary devices (for example, sorites, often noted, a good instance of which is 6:17-20; chiasmus; and paronomasis, for instance at 5:3, 10; 6:22-23). At the same time, the text displays throughout, from start to finish, the parallelismus membrorum characteristic of Hebrew poetry, the Psalter of LXX, and Psalms of Solomon, etc. Some elements of Greek poetry are also occasionally in evidence, with hints of iambic metre at 14:5, 26, and of hexameter verse at 10:3. See further Winston, pp. 15-16.

2.4.4 Special linguistic usages occur pervasively or prominently: knowledge of the technical terminology of Greek philosophy and ethics is taken for granted. The text uses a large number of words either not found in LXX, or used in a sense which differs from their use in that version.

2.4.4.1 Technical expressions for a particular subject matter: philosophical and ethical terms are used very frequently. For philosophical terms, see (for example) 7:22-24; 8:16-18; 15:3, 11; 16:6, 10; for ethical vocabulary, see (for example) 2:19; 5:20; 7:8, 17; 9:14; 14:25-26; 17:11.

2.4.4.4 Biblicizing language, such that the text may be assumed to project itself as having a link to texts today known as biblical (see 7.1.4.1): The text often echoes the Greek of the LXX, as for example at 3:14 //Isaiah 56:4-5; 5:6-8//Isaiah 53:2-3,7-10; 9:13//Isaiah 40:12-14; 15:15//Psalms 114 (15):5; 16:20//Psalms 78:24-25, and in many other instances.

2.5 The text contains deictic or other expressions referring to the governing voice’s time or place, or place it after/before some key event: governing voice speaks of time "when I was born" (7:3); evidence of wickedness of cities of the plain "still" exists (10:7); idols did not exist "from the beginning" (14:3).

2.5.1 as part of the words of the governing voice.

2.6 The text presents itself as speaking to certain persons, groups or entities, explicitly projecting a certain image of its addressee: Human addressees are invoked explicitly as "you that judge the earth" (1:10); "you kings...judges of the ends of the earth" (6:1); "you that have dominion over multitudes" (6:2); "you, O princes" (6:9). God is invoked as addressee at (for example) 11:21ff., 14:3-7; 15:1-3.

2.6.1 The governing voice uses apostrophe, second-person grammatical forms or first-person exclusive or inclusive “we”: Second person plural imperatives are used for the human addressees listed at 2.6. God addressed with second person singular imperative.

2.6.2 The projected addressee is characterized as having a certain moral or epistemic stance, or as standing in contrast to another group’s moral or epistemic stance: The human addressees are exhorted to accept the philosophical, ethical, religious and psychological behaviour articulated by the governing voice. They are thus differentiated from those who oppose the views of the governing voice, designated as "the impious" at (for example) 3:10; 4:3-16; 5:1-14, etc. These impious ones present their stance in direct speech in second level at 2:1-9; 5:4-13.

2.6.3 The governing voice uses verbs of epistemic or moral exhortation or employs a “focus marker": verbs of address, exhortations, and imperatives, are frequent throughout, urging the reader to adopt the advice and stance of the governing voice.

2.6.4 The governing voice directs questions at the projected addressee which are marked as rhetorical or as suggesting the audience assume a particular epistemic or moral stance: at (for example) 9:13, 16, 17; 11:21,25; 12:12.

2.6.5 The governing voice employs exclamatory or declamatory modes of speech (cf. 8.1.13): Striking is the use of Hebrew poetic form and style in Greek garb, reminiscent of the Psalter of the LXX and the Psalms of Solomon, etc.: declamatory modes of speech in text's voice are common.

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3.6 The language of a text whose boundaries are not determined by poetic formation or by contrast in adjacency (3.2–4 does not apply) exhibits poetic formation as follows: The text throughout has the outward appearance of a poetic work, resembling the Psalms in the LXX Psalter, other "wisdom" books associated with Solomon such as Proverbs and Qohelet, and the non-scriptural Psalms of Solomon. This is achieved principally by the pervasive use of parallelismus membrorum throughout. The resemblance to the poetry of the Hebrew Bible is strongest in chapters 1-5; thereafter, while the appearance and general aspect of parallelism is maintained, parts of the text can be read as prose of an elevated kind. There is some evidence, also, that the governing voice has on occasions employed elements of Greek poetic metre (see 2.4.3 and 3.6.3), suggesting that the poetic dimension of the text is to be appreciated throughout.

3.6.2 There is pervasive use of parallelism: Although the text is written in Greek, it uses the parallelismus membrorum characteristic of Hebrew poetry like the biblical Hebrew Psalms, Job, Qohelet, etc. In Greek, parallelism is represented also in the LXX Psalter and Psalms of Solomon, etc.

3.6.3 There is pervasive use of other features that can be interpreted as defining poetic formation, such as heightened or figurative language, repetitions of key phrases, short or otherwise poetically defined lines, etc: there are clear signs of the governing voice's employment of iambic metre at (for example) 10:9; 14:5, 6; 15:4, and of hexameter verse at 10:3; 18:4.

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5.2 The sequence of themes in the discursive or descriptive text suggests an objective order constituted in dividing a larger topic by a constant principle (or set of principles) of subordination/coordination.

5.2.1 This suggestion includes all substantive parts of the text (other than any frames), or deviations are made explicit.

5.2.1.1 Later passages refer to preceding themes in order to add detail: Sub-topics are announced and then taken up in other parts of the text; for example, evil and its ways announced 1:1-5, further discussed 4:11-12; 6:11; 8:21; 9:14; 14:13-17; immortality announced 2:23, further discussed 3:4; 4;1; 8:13-17; knowledge of God announced 2:13; further noted 3:7; 13:1-3; 15:1-3.

5.6 The text pervasively provides explicit links between successive sub-topics, without at the same time mirroring an objective order as in 5.2–5 or in some other manner; the text is also not a case of 3.1: Thus sub-topics are announced, and then taken up into other parts of the text. For example, "the nature of evil and its ways" as a sub-topic is announced at 1:1-5, and then further discussed at 4:11-12; 6:11; 8:21; 9:14; 14:13-17; "immortality" as a sub-topic is announced at 2:23, and is further discussed at 3:4; 4:1; 8:13-17; "knowledge of God" announced at 2:13, and further noted at 3:7; 13:1-3; 15:1-3. There is also pervasive management of transitions through the use of conjunctions. Thus we find gar introducing the speech of the impious at 2:1, following their introduction by governing voice at 1:16; adversative de introduces the sub-topic of destiny of the righteous; tote introduces at 5:1 the demeanour of the righteous at judgement; oun at 6:1 introduces the governing voice's address to kings following what has so far been said about the righteous and impious, etc.; gar at 13:1 pursues the logic of what has been said earlier; palin at 14:1 offers further examples of idolatrous folly.

5.6.1 The text constitutes a conceptual inquiry into the accuracy or validity of universal claims regarding facts or norms.

5.6.1.1 The inquiry pervasively or prominently proceeds by juxtaposing and discussing mutually exclusive claims, or alternative (or hypothetical) world projections: The claims and world view of the "wicked" are set out by the governing voice at the beginning of the text, and the counterclaims which the governing voice makes on behalf of the righteous are then set forth. The text as a whole is concerned with the claims of these two groups: the Wisdom advocated by the governing voice is thus set against the folly of the "ignorant" (for example, see 13:1-9), just as rational religious belief is set over against idolatry (13:10-15:19).

5.6.1.1.1 Some of the units so opposed to each other are ascribed (whether verbatim or not) to real, imaginary or hypostasized speakers: See 13:1-9, where the world-view of the "ignorant" and "foolish" is outlined, and the following account of idolatry and its origins in 14:12-21 is evidently taken as characteristic of such persons. These are contrasted with the "righteous", whose stance the governing voice approves.

5.9 The text’s governing voice projects the accuracy or validity of its statements as:

5.9.2 Admitting discussion or disagreement, or the need for argument and evidence in principle.

5.9.4 The following argument types occur:

5.9.4.1 Conceptual arguments as well as arguments from the quoted wording of another text (not necessarily in equal measure): Conceptual arguments predominate in chapters 1-9, where the governing voice's contrasting of the ungodly with the righteous is employed to provide arguments from experience, from reason, and from philosophical theorising in favour of the superiority of the righteous. The latter possess Wisdom, and arguments for Wisdom's wide ranging benefits are presented first with a discussion of the nature of Wisdom herself in chapters 6-9, and then by means of a set of systematic examples derived from the Bible illustrating Wisdom's superiority and blesings. The polemic against idolatry in 13:1-15:19 draws both on cenceptual arguments and invokes arguments derived from Scripture.

5.10 The governing voice ascribes statements about the text’s thematic substance pervasively or prominently to speaker characters as utterances: The characters are the impious and the wicked, and are given two important "key" speeches at 2:1-20; 5:4-13.

5.10.1 Isolated utterances (or dialogues) are presented without a unifying emplotment, but tacitly presuppose a unified grid of story/history.

5.10.1.1 The persons, groups or generic figures indicated as speakers tend to be only minimally identified or contextualized: Speeches of characters are ascribed to typecast groups dubbed "ungodly", "wicked", or "unrighteous" and are not further identified. See, for example, the speeches of the "ungodly" at 2:6-20; 5:4-13; and the prayer of the governing voice, only obliquely and indirectly identified as Solomon, at 9:1-18.

5.10.3 The governing voice quotes a character with a direct speech of such length that it constitutes a significant proportion of the text overall: The "ungodly" speak at length at 2:6-20 and 5:9-13.

5.11 The text mentions no persons as characters, or mentions them only in frame positions: There is a complete absence of proper names of human beings, whose identity is only obliquely indicated. It is uncertain whether the governing voice takes for granted that addressees will be able to identify these characters. [Proper names for supernatural beings, however, are given: see 2.4.1.3].

5.12 The text thematizes the meaning of historical or narrative events and summarizes, alludes to or refers to events as evidence, but does not create sustained emplotment (contrast 4.7): Chronology of narrated, biblical events is presupposed for a large section of the text, chapters 10-19, and for events in the biography of the governing voice, for example 9:7-8. In chapters 10-19, this meta-narrative discourse systematically "depersonalises" the characters mentioned in the narrated biblical events, and is highly selective in the narrative details it mentions.

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7.1 Narrative or thematic correspondences, or overlap of specific wording, occur between a non-biblical text and one or more biblical texts in a manner that is prominent or pervasive.

7.1.4 The text shares features of language with the Hebrew Bible, or exhibits tacit overlap with specific biblical wording, whether narrative or not.

7.1.4.1 There are pervasive biblical linguistic features (vocabulary, morphology or syntax) or a pervasive use of unspecific biblical language, such as generic biblical phrases or single words: See, for example, 1:10-11 for the use of the vocabulary of "murmuring" associated with Israel's disobedience in the wilderness (Numbers 11; Exodus 116-17); 3:7-8 for the description of the righteous "shining forth" and judging nations (Daniel 12:3; Psalms 37:6); 5:16 for the glorious crown and beautiful diadem the righteous receive from the Lord (cf. Isaiah 62:3); 7:14 for the language of "friendship with God", applied to Abraham at Isaiah 41:8; 2 Chronicles 20:7; and 9:8 for the notion that the Jerusalem temple is a "copy" built from a heavenly pattern (cf. Exodus 25:9, 40).

7.1.4.2 The text contains prominently, but not necessarily frequently, the wording of specific biblical passages such as whole sentences or unique biblical phrases, used in a tacit manner. See also 8.1.4.1: See, for example, 4:10 for an unmarked but easily recognisable reference to Enoch's translation as described in Genesis 5:24; 6:1 with its command to king to listen and judges to learn, which uses the language of Psalms 2:10; the tacit reference to Lot's wife turned into a pillar of salt at 10:7(cf. Genesis 19:26); the tacit quotation of Psalms 8:2 at 10:21; the declaration addressed to God, that "there is no God besides you" at 12:13, using the language of Deuteronomy 32:39; the terminology of God's rebuking insolence at 12:17, which recalls Psalms 119:21.

7.1.4.3 The tacit overlap of wording takes place across language boundaries, with respect to the current language of the text (this point does not apply to 6.13 cases): The overlap of the Greek text of Wisdom with wording from the biblical books owes much to the Old Greek (LXX) translation of the Hebrew Bible. Significant instances of this are 2:12; 12:12, and 15:10, where Greek versions of Isaiah 3:10; Job 9:19, and Job 9:12 respectively are used, and these Greek versions differ significantly from the wording of the Hebrew Masoretic Text.

7.1.5 The projected persona of the governing voice of the text, whether a narrative or not, is also known from a biblical text, or the governing voice assumes an epistemic stance similar to that of a biblical text: The I-narrator is king Solomon, although he does not directly disclose his name, and his identity has to be inferred from unambiguous information given by him.

7.1.5.1 The projected first-person persona of the governing voice is also a character in a biblical text: The character is Solomon, who features principally in 1 Kings 1:11-11:42; 2 Chronicles 1:1-9:31.

7.1.5.1.1 The persona appears to be linked to a character as it specifically appears in the biblical text, not merely as it might be known from diffuse cultural knowledge: Solomon's identity is revealed in the information that the I-narrator is a king who built the Temple (9:7-8), as reported of Solomon at 1 Kings 6-8; 2 Chronicles 3-6.

7.1.5.2 The projected first-person persona of the governing voice is presented as identical with, or as an extension of, the persona of the governing voice of a biblical text: Solomon is named as governing voice of Proverbs at 1:1 and 10:1 (or at least as governing voice of the first part of that text, 1:1-24:34) and of Song of Songs (1:1). Qohelet's governing voice is slightly less explicit, and compares with the governing voice of Wisdom of Solomon: he is "son of David, king in Jerusalem", Solomon not being named.

7.1.5.3 The epistemic stance of the governing voice (narrative or not, first person or not) can be interpreted as falling into the same generic category as one of the following stances also adopted in biblical texts:

7.1.5.3.4 The conveyance of wisdom on the basis of personal experience or learning, as in Proverbs, Qohelet.

7.1.8 The non-narrative text pervasively or prominently presupposes the narrative fabric of biblical events/reported speech, beyond the contents of any specific biblical wording it may quote: This is especially marked throughout chapters 10-19, where biblical narrative is used by the governing voice to exemplify the power of wisdom in the lives of individuals and Israel as a people. The biblical narrative as presented by the governing voice, however, is stripped of personal names; thus, for example, the governing voice's discussion of Jacob (10:9-12)does not name the Patriarch, introduces him obliquely as "a righteous man" who fled from his brother's anger, and gives only sketches of crucial incidents in his life ("in his arduous context she (Wisdom) gave him victory" encapsulates the dramatic incident at the Jabbok, Genesis 32:22-32).

7.1.8.1 The text presupposing biblical narrative fabric has a thematic structure of discourse or description.

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8.1 Standard forms or contents formulated in set phrases, set sentence formats, or clauses in a standard syntactic connection.

8.1.4.1 The expressive use of unmarked biblical wording whose function in the text’s discourse is enhanced or achieved by it being recognised as coming from a Scripture: pervasive.

8.1.10 List sentence enumerating items by words or phrases: occasional, for example, list of characteristics of wisdom (8:22-23), enumeration of effects of idolatry (14:25-26), and descriptions of terrors on the wicked (17:18-19).

8.1.13 Declamatory sentence, confession, proclamation or affirmation: occasional, for example 15:1 ff.

8.1.14 Prayer, doxology, valediction or blessing: (in the governing voice) prayer 9:1-18.

8.1.19 Prediction of reward or punishment of behaviour in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: Occasional: see (for example) prediction of punishment of impious at 3:10-13, 16-9; 4:3-6) and reward of righteous ones (3:13-15; 4:16-17).

8.1.20 Recommendation of a particular behaviour or statement of an ideal type of person in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: Pervasive, inasmuch as the text as a whole speaks of wisdom and the right conduct of individuals in the world under her guidance.

8.1.21 Statement describing a reality (nature, creation, human nature) in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: Pervasive: note especially wisdom statements about the changes in the nature of creatures at the time of the Exodus and its aftermath (19:10-12, 19-21).

8.2 Non-narrative small literary forms that impose on their components a standard functional relationship to each other, while grammar and syntax may vary:

8.2.5 The summary exposition, in a number of sentences, of theological ideas: Occasional, with one such summary in frame position at 19:22. See also 1:13-15; 2:23-24; 6:17-20.

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9.6 An extended portion or substantial proportion of the text continuously explicates local thematic transitions, by means of:

9.6.1 Use of conjunctions: To manage logical or thematic trsnsitions, the text makes use of conjunctions in its discourse. Thus at 2:1 gar, "for", makes way for a speech of the impious, following their introduction by the governing voice at 1:16; and at 3:1 adversative de, "but", links this speech to the contrasting state of the righteous, whose detiny is then discussed. At 5:1, Greek tote, "then", introduces description of the demeanour of the righteous in judgment; and at 6:1 oun, "therefore", prepares the way for the governing voice's address to kings which follows directly from what has been said up to that point about the righteous and the impious. At 13:1, gar, "for" pursues the logic of what has been said in the preceding verses; while at 14:1 palin, "again", leads into discussion of examples of idolatrous folly additional to those described earlier in the text. Such use of conjunctions is pervasive.

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11.1 The non-narrative text projects its thematic concern as being mainly one or more of the following:

11.1.2 Moral values or value judgments, including practical instructions on proper behaviour or self-preservation.

11.1.4 A discourse on or inquiry into a field of knowledge, with self-referential treatment of the limits, sources or nature of knowledge.

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12.1 Sampling of genre labels applied to the text in secondary literature: logos protreptikos; encomium; diatribe; autobiographical narrative.

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Bibliography:

Text: Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum Auctoritate Societatis Litterarum Gottingensis editum XII.1: Sapientia Salomonis, 2nd ed. (Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980); A. Rahlfs, Septuaginta, 2 vols (Stuttgart: Wuerttembergische Bibelanstalt, 1935), vol. 2, pp. 345-376.

Translations: S. Holmes, "The Wisdom of Solomon", in R. H. Charles (ed.), The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 2 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913), vol. 2, pp.518-568; M. A. Knibb, "The Wisdom of Salomon", in A. Pietersma amd B. G. Wright (eds.), A New English Translation of the Septuagint (New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 697-714; P. Enns, "Wisdom of Solomon", in L. H. Feldman, J. L. Kugel and L. H. Schiffman (eds.), Outside the Bible. Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society/University of Nebraska Press, 2013), pp. 2155–2207. German: J. Fichtner, Weisheit Salomos, HAT II.6 (Tuebingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1938).

Studies: A. G. Wright, "The Structure of the Book of Wisdom", Biblica 48 (1967), pp.165-184; J. M. Reese, Hellenistic Influence on the Book of Wisdom and Its Consequences, Analecta Biblica 41 (Rome: Pontifical Bibliocal Institute, 1970); D. Winston, The Wisdom of Solomon, Anchor Bible 43 (New York: Doubleday, 1979); C. Larcher, Le Livre de la Sagesse ou la Sagesse de Salomon, 3 vols (Paris: Gabalda, 1983-1985); M. Gilbert, "Sagesse de Salomon (ou Livre de la Sagesse)" , in  J. Briend and E. Cothenet (eds.), Supplement au Dictionnaire de la Bible, (Paris: Letouzey et Ane), vol. XI, pp. 58-119; M. Kolarcik, The Ambuiguity of Death in the Book of Wisdom 1-6: A Study of Literary Structure and Interpretation, Analecta Biblica 127 (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1993); U. Schwenk-Bressler, Sapientia Salomonis als ein Beispiel fruehjuedischer Textauslegung: Die Auslegung des Buches Genesis, Exodus 1-15 und Teilen der Wuestentradition in Sap 10-19 (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1993); N. Calduch-Benages and J. Vermeylen, A. Passaro and G. Bellia, The Book of Wisdom in Modern Research (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2005).



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