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1 Baruch (19/01/13) (Researcher: Robert Hayward):
Selected Inventory point(s):
1.1 For part-text 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries): This only applies to the first of four part-texts which make up the whole of 1Bar. The totality of 1Bar is not covered by the heading in 1Bar 1:1. For 1Bar overall, see entry 10.1. For this way of reading the whole, see 1.7 and the overview of parts in the Bibliography.

Full profile (Bibliography at the bottom):
1.1 For part-text 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries): This only applies to the first of four part-texts which make up the whole of 1Bar. The totality of 1Bar is not covered by the heading in 1Bar 1:1. For 1Bar overall, see entry 10.1. For this way of reading the whole, see 1.7 and the overview of parts in the Bibliography.

1.1.1 For part-text 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The text refers to itself using a genre term, speech act term, verb or other term implying verbal constitution: The naming of a verbal category with the use of demonstrative pronouns: "These are the words of the book (kai houtoi hoi logoi tou bibliou) which Baruch ... wrote (egrapsen)" (1:1); "the words of this book (tous logous tou bibliou toutou)...the people who came to the book (pors ten biblon)" (1:3); "you shall read this book (to biblion touto) which we sent to you" (1:14). The part or parts of the quoted text that follows after 1Bar 1:14 ("this book") is also characterized as constituting the wording of a "confession" (exagoreusai), to be made "in the house of the Lord on the days of the feasts and at appointed seasons" (1Bar 1:14, RSV).

1.1.4 [For part-text 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The text introduces the governing voice, thereby indirectly marking its own boundedness: Baruch, son of Neria, is introduced (in 1Bar 1:1, 3) as the author ("wrote") of the missive beginning in 1:10. Since this missive uses a first-person plural, its governing voice in the introductory part (1Bar 1:10–15a introducing the penitential prayer 1:15–2:35) is not presented as identical with any first-person singular persona, thus also not with Baruch. In other words, Baruch, while being introduced as author, is not introduced as governing voice of the missive. As for the penitential prayer itself, its voice is also manifestly different from the projected persona of Baruch, as it identifies itself as "the men of Judah, the inhabitants of Jerusalem..." etc. (1Bar 1:15). In other words, the governing voice of the missive is not presented as identical with Baruch, and in the reading here suggested, the scope of the announcement of 1Bar 1:1 does not go beyond 2:35.]

1.1.4.1 For part-text 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The text has a superscription concerning “to whom” it is addressed or for whose use it is: The missive within part-text one is explicitly addressed to a group of priests and others in Jerusalem identified in 1Bar 1:7. There they are merely identified as the recipients of the money collected, but since that money is also mentioned at the beginning of the missive in 1Bar 1:10, the missive is presented as going to the same group.

1.6 The approximate word count or other indication of comparative size is: c. 2,770 words, using a Word count from the electronic Greek text, http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/septuagint/chapter.asp?book=45 (accessed 19/01/13).

1.7 The text’s Inventory profile should be seen in the light of the following further information on completeness, thematic progression, aesthetic effects, etc.: Overview of Parts: see Bibliography. There is a change-over from prose to poetic language which happens suddenly, as the prose of 1:1-3:8 gives way without warning to the poetic language of 3:9-5:9. There are two main ways to try to read the verbal entity as a whole. Reading A (see table in Bibliography) takes the narrative of the missive and its quoted text to end in 2:35, and to be followed by three or four further part-texts 1Bar would then be a compound of diverse, merely juxtaposed, part-texts (10.1) without a unifying framework. This is the structure adopted for this Profile. The part-texts are pieces spoken from the perspective of the Jerusalemites (according to the instruction in 1Bar 1:15a), from that of exiles, from a voice praising wisdom, and from God. The parts would be: 1:10–2:35 instructions to and text to be performed by the Jerusalemites; 3:1–3:8 penitential prayer from an exilic perspective; 3:9–4:4 an exhortative address to Israel with wisdom themes, and 4:5–5:9, an address by God to Israel and Jerusalem to have hope. Reading B (see table in Bibliography) takes everything from 1:10 onwards (after “they said”) as forming part of the missive to Jerusalem. This missive (the “book” sent to them) would then effectively consist of merely juxtaposed, extended pieces (some poetic). It requires thinking of the “book” that Baruch and his companions sent to Jerusalem as an internally diversified text not covered in its entirety by the initial instructions (e.g. “you shall say”, 1Bar 1:15). This reading is not the one expressed in the current Profile. It may be considered a viable alternative, but is weakened by the presence of a piece by the unmediated divine voice from 1Bar 4:4(or 4:30) to 5:9. However, both readings postulate a 'weak' coherence for the verbal entity overall.

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2.1 The information conveyed in the text defines the perspective of the governing voice in the following way:

2.1.1 For the narrative frame of the first part-text only (1Bar 1:1–10a): The text does not thematize how the governing voice comes to know the text’s contents (or its right to command obedience from the addressee), but suggests that its knowledge (or authority) is unlimited.

2.1.1.1 For the narrative frame of the first part-text only (1Bar 1:1–10a): In narrative, the governing voice’s perspective tacitly is that of someone “present” at all events equally, regardless of their time, place, or nature (e.g. thoughts or private utterances of characters).

2.1.7 For the narrative frame of the first part-text only (1Bar 1:1–10a): The governing voice (whether first or third person) is anonymous, that is, is not presented as tied to a specific personal identity (or to personhood in general).

2.1.8 For the narrative frame of the first part-text only (1Bar 1:1–10a): The governing voice speaks at no point in the first person (except for any 2.2.4.3) and all persons/objects are mentioned from a third-person perspective.

2.2 A first-person voice imposes its perspective on all (or almost all) knowledge or norms conveyed in the text: There are various first persons voices on the ‘highest’ level for separate part-text, and several other quoted voices which speak in the first person also. Here is an overview: (1) The governing first person voice of the missive sent to the Jerusalemites is a “we” that is not identical with Baruch as the one who “wrote” that missive, yet presumably meant to be include Baruch in a larger group of exiled functionaries (or the community as a whole). This voice introduces a (2) second first-person text which is a confession of sins from the perspective (that is, in the voice of) the men of Judah/inhabitants of Jerusalem, within which (3) God is quoted in direct speech several times with his own first person (e.g. 1Bar 2:21–23 and, with reference to Moses as recipient, 1Bar 2:29–35). (4) A new first-person collective identity, that of the exiles, is heard probably from 1Bar 3:1 (and identifies itself as speaking in the situation of exile in 3:7). (5) A further first-person voice (speaking of “our God” in 1Bar 3:35, “happy are we, O Israel”, 4:4) addresses exhortations to Israel on the topic of wisdom from 1Bar 3:9 onwards. This voice does not localize itself in time and place at all, and it is ambiguous whether it is a “we” (Israel addressing Israel) or, more plausibly, a single member of Israel (an “I”). (6) A new unintroduced voice speaks probably from 1Bar 4:5, whose first-person identity is revealed in one sentence (4:34) to be that of God. This persona exhorts first Israel, and then Jerusalem, to “take courage”, and also introduces (7) verbatim first-person speech by hypostasized Jerusalem, whose words begin in 1Bar 4:9 and must end in 4:29). Of these various first persons, the following are introduced by another voice, and therefore are not on the highest level of the piece of text in which they occur: (1), (2), (3), (7). The others, namely (4) (1Bar 3:1), (5) (1Bar 3:9) and (6) (1Bar 4:5; the latter may even be considered to be two different voices, see table in Bibliography) each must be considered to be the highest voice of a new part-text, because they are neither introduced by some other voice already established as speaking in the preceding text, nor do they continue a narrative or thematic line (or even a style of speaking, as poetic language begins from 1Bar 3:9). These voices are thus the governing voices of the independent part-texts whose juxtaposition make up 1Bar, together with the part-texts that has the anonymous third-person voice of 1Bar 1:1, and to which the first-person voice (1) is subordinate (see 5.1). See also 10.1 and the table in Bibliography. The points below explain further the relationship of the narrative to the quoted voice in the first part-text, 1Bar 1:1–2:35.

2.2.1 For 1Bar 1:15–2:35 only: The first-person governing voice is identified by an anonymous voice through a proper name or unique description: the first-person voice of 1:10–15a is identified indirectly by the anonymous narrative framework (1Bar 1:1–10a) as being that of the group of persons mentioned in 1Bar 1:3–4 ("Herewith we send you money...", 1:10), presumably including Baruch but others also.

2.2.1.2 For section 1Bar 1:10–15a in the first part-text only: The text is introduced as the first-person voice’s extended direct speech, having taken place on a unique narrative occasion: the voice of the "we" collective introducing the penitential prayer and instructing the Jerusalemites on how to use it is the only part of 1Bar whose first-person voice is contextualized by the opening narrative account (1Bar 1:1–10a).

2.2.1.3 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: The introduction of the first-person governing voice of the text has the following characteristics (also applies to self-identification 2.2.2):

2.2.1.3.1 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: It contextualizes the person, or the person together with a unique occasion of speaking: the frame has a contextualizing narrative about the first person governing voice relating Baruch to events in the time of Jechonias and Nebuchadnezzar.

2.2.1.3.3 It is found at the beginning of the text only.

2.2.4 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: The number and gender of the first-person governing voice are as follows: there are several distinct personas, some singular, some plural first persons.

2.2.4.1 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: The first person singular is used: in one of the sections, starting 1Bar 4:5.

2.2.4.2 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: The first person plural is used, in several of the distinct sections.

2.2.5 For part-text 1Bar 4:4–5:9 only: The first-person governing voice refers to herself/himself also in third person grammatical constructions: if this whole piece is read as one, then the first-person reference of God to himself in 4:34 determines the overall perspective, while the references to God in the third person (in particular in 4:36–5:9) must be interpreted as self-references of the speaking voice. See table in Bibliography, Reading A.

2.3 [There is an unexplained switch of the grammatical person of the governing voice within the main body of the text: there are several first-person voices merely juxtaposed. However, these are to be interpreted as belonging to independently presented part-texts, not as unexplained switches within the same continuous text (as in Tobit or Testament of Job). For themes and language of the part-texts also change, so that there are clear signals for independent part-texts being juxtaposed (within each of which the governing voice can be interpreted as being stable). See the explanation of voices in 2.2 and the overview of parts in Bibliography.]

2.4 The governing voice defines a horizon of knowledge as shared with the projected addressee by taking for granted the following linguistic usages or references (in selection): The examples cited range across the whole of 1Bar without distinguishing the part-texts.

2.4.1 Persons or unique objects referred to by proper name or by technical expression: the proper names are almost all names of biblical characters; Greek term "Hades" used at 1Bar 2:17; 3:11, 19.

2.4.1.1 for persons mentioned or presented in narrative usage; as characters; or topics, for example:

2.4.1.2 for persons quoted with direct speech in a non-narrative co-text, for example: God in various places, and a personified Jerusalem in 1Bar 4:9.

2.4.1.3 for Gods/mythical figures/supernatural beings, etc., for example: Divine titles "Lord" and "God" are pervasive in 1:1-3:8; God in 3:9-4:4; Eternal in 4:5-5:9. Pantokrator once (3:1). Mythical "giants" mentioned in 3:26.

2.4.1.4 for locations, for example: The majority of these are biblical; otherwise note River Soud (1:4) and Merran (3:23), the latter possibly an error for Midian. The mythical location of 'Hades' is named at 2:17; 3:11, 19.

2.4.1.5 for times or calendar dates (specific to a language or culture), for example: The Jewish calendar is used without explanation; the tenth day of Sivan (1:8) is mentioned, with the "fifth year, seventh of the month" (1:2) repeating a biblical date.

2.4.1.6 for documents, texts, books, etc. (identified through being referred to or quoted), for example: See 1Bar 2:2, "what is written in the Law of Moses", and cf. 2:28 "to write Your Law"; 4:1, where Wisdom is the "book of the decrees of God, the Law...".

2.4.3 The text as a whole routinely employs the following language(s), knowledge of which is taken for granted: Greek. The section 1Bar 1:1-3:8 is commonly believed to represent a translation from an original Hebrew, of which nothing remains. 1Bar 3:9-5:9 contains many Greek words found only here in LXX.

2.4.3.1 Additional language(s) taken for granted in quoted speech or certain parts of the text are: The Hebrew word "minhah" is represented by Greek transliteration as "manaa", and is not explained (1Bar 1:10).

2.4.4 Special linguistic usages occur pervasively or prominently:

2.4.4.1 Technical expressions for a particular subject matter: To limited extent, as in 1:10 where biblical sacrificial terminology is used without explanation.

2.4.4.4 Biblicizing language, such that the text may be assumed to project itself as having a link to texts today known as biblical (see 7.1.4.1): Biblicizing language is used prominently or pervasively in both prose and poetic parts of the text, but is particularly noticeable in 1Bar 3:9-5:9.

2.4.4.5 Other special linguistic usages: There are other special usages, such as normative force of indicative verbal forms, loan words, etc.: Hebrew loan word "manaa" at 1:10 is taken for granted.

2.5 The text contains deictic or other expressions referring to the governing voice’s time or place, or place it after/before some key event:

2.5.1 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: as part of the words of the governing voice: there are references to "this day" or "now", as at 1:13, 15, 19, 20; 2:6, 11, 26; and 3:8 speaking of "today" when "we are in exile".

2.6 The text presents itself as speaking to certain persons, groups or entities, explicitly projecting a certain image of its addressee.

2.6.1 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: The governing voices use apostrophe, second-person grammatical forms or first-person exclusive or inclusive “we”: the various governing voices employ, respectively, apostrophe of Israel (e.g., 3:9, 24; 4:4); Jacob (e.g., 4:2); Jerusalem (e.g. 4:30, 36; 5:1, 5); neighbours of Zion (4:9); my people/children (e.g., 4:5, 19, 21, 25, 27). Apostrophe of "the Lord" is pervasive in 2:11-3:9. All this along with 2nd person forms. Inclusive use of "we" especially at 1:15-3:8.

2.6.2 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: The projected addressee is characterized as having a certain moral or epistemic stance, or as standing in contrast to another group’s moral or epistemic stance.

2.6.3 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: The governing voice uses verbs of epistemic or moral exhortation or employs a “focus marker".

2.6.4 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: The governing voice directs questions at the projected addressee which are marked as rhetorical or as suggesting the audience assume a particular epistemic or moral stance; see 1Bar 3:29–30; also 3:15–18, but those questioned are answered in v. 19.

2.6.5 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9 only: The governing voice employs exclamatory or declamatory modes of speech (cf. 8.1.13).

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3.4 For 1Bar 3:9–5:9 only: The text constitutes one piece in a sequence of pieces that only show themselves as separate from each other by their contrast in adjacency (3.2 does not apply to this single piece). The contrast may arise from theme, perspective, opening or closing formulae, terms of address and style (including language, poetic devices; for the aggregate of pieces, see 10.2): this point applies to each of the two adjacent poetic pieces 1Bar 3:9–4:4, 4:5–5:9 (or even smaller pieces, see table in Bibliography, Reading A) in their mutual contrast.

3.5 For 1Bar 3:9–5:9 only: The language of a text whose boundaries are determined by poetic formation or by contrast in adjacency (3.3–4 applies) exhibits poetic formation as follows: this applies to each of the pieces mentioned in 3:4.

3.5.2 For 1Bar 3:9–5:9 only: There is pervasive use of parallelism: parallelism in 1Bar 3:9-5:9 redolent of LXX Psalter and Psalms of Solomon.

3.5.3 For 1Bar 3:9–5:9 only: There is pervasive use of other features that can be interpreted as defining poetic formation, such as heightened or figurative language, repetitions of key phrases, short or otherwise poetically defined lines, etc.

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4.1 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The text narrates events which are strongly emplotted, making reference to interlocking happenings, characters, motivations, causes, times or locations: rudimentary as the narrative section 1Bar 1:1–10a is, this seems to apply.

4.1.4 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The narrative foregrounds apparently exact information on the absolute and relative timing of events: thus precise and coordinated timings are given, e.g. 1Bar 1:2, 8. The simultaneity with events in Jerusalem is stressed; and the events in Jerusalem are presupposed, yet spelled out briefly in 1Bar 1:2.

4.2 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The event sequence is projected as related to the sequence of text parts as follows:

4.2.1 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The report sequence mirrors the projected chronological sequence of events mostly or wholly, not precluding 4.2.2–5.

4.4 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The narrative tells the story of the creation or reception of a separate text which is presented verbatim within the narrative framework, or at its end: The following parts of the first part-text of 1Bar can be distinguished (and see tabular representation in the Bibliography), describing the relationship between the narrative and the quoted text(s). A. The opening and introduction of the quote missive. 1Bar 1:1–10a (up to "and they said"), constitutes a narrative account of the creation of a message which the part-text 1Bar 1:10–2:35 presents itself as reporting verbatim (1Bar 1:1). The anonymous voice narrating this creation of the message is not heard again, and it is not clearly marked where the quoted missive ends. B. 1Bar 1:10–15a are words inside the missive, and meta-communicative information or introduction to the main body of the missive by an unidentified first-person plural voice (but suggested as identical or overlapping with the persons mentioned in 1Bar 1:3–4), instructing the Jerusalemite recipients to perform the subsequent words as a liturgical utterance (kai ereite, 1Bar 1:15). C. 1Bar 1:15b–2:35, the text of a first-person confession of sins addressed explicitly to God, identifying its own governing voice as the men of Judah, inhabitants of Jerusalem, "our"kings/princes/priests/prophets/fathers" (1:15–16). This confession includes short references to events of the past and quotes an extended speech of God to Moses of the past (1Bar 2:29–35), which quoted speech ends in a renewed promise of redemption; all this can be read as constituting part of what the Jerusalemites are instructed to utter in 1Bar 1:15). In the reading here suggested (Reading A), the text of the quoted missive ends at this point, and 1Bar 3:1–8 is a new part-text, merely juxtaposed to the narrative of the missive and the quoted text of the missive. See table in Bibliography Reading A.

4.10 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: A character’s relations to her/his community are foregrounded, including any two-fold social environment (e.g. a diaspora setting): although the action within 1Bar 1:1–10a is very limited, it is clearly referencing the situation of exile, and the text itself reflects the complex relationship between communities (e.g. in the instruction for the Jerusalemites to pray for Nebuchadnezzar, 1:11).

4.13 [For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The narrative pace is slowed down or changed by frequent or prominent quotation of speech, thought or text: see 4.4.]

4.13.3 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: Quoted wording is presented as a message (written or oral) sent from one character to another - as indicated in 4.4.

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5.1 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The bulk of the text is constituted by thematic discourse/description, albeit presented as speech/wording quoted from a narrative setting: this applies with the proviso that the thematic contents of the missive is not a propositional or normative discourse, but a prescribed prayer text (1Bar 1:15–2:35).

5.1.1 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The discursive or descriptive treatment of themes is presented as one character’s continuous speech or wording in a unique narrative situation: the text 1Bar 1:10–2:35 is continuous speech of the exiles, containing within it the quoted wording of a prayer to be performed by the addressees of the missive.

5.12 For the part-texts in 1Bar 1:10–5:9: The text thematizes the meaning of historical or narrative events and summarizes, alludes to or refers to events as evidence, but does not create sustained emplotment (contrast 4.7): this point applies in particular when it comes to interpreting events as fulfillment of God's earlier threats (e.g. 1Bar 1:15–2:35), but note the non-discursive nature of the sentences throughout the part-texts.

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7.1 Narrative or thematic correspondences, or overlap of specific wording, occur between a non-biblical text and one or more biblical texts in a manner that is prominent or pervasive.

7.1.1 Characters correspond between the non-biblical narrative and the narrative of a biblical text or texts: There is narrative-chronological ground shared through character overlap. This applies to the "frame", 1:1-10, and in quoted direct speech 10–14; and to the prose section of the text, 1:15-3:8. A number of biblical persons are mentioned there, including Baruch, Nebuchadnezzar, and others.

7.1.1.1 Some or all main characters of the text correspond to main characters in a biblical partner text: Baruch, as key protagonist in 1Bar 1:1–10.

7.1.1.2 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35: The text’s main character is a minor character in Scripture: this applies to Baruch.

7.1.2 Chronology, physical setting or emplotment correspond between the non-biblical narrative and the narrative of a biblical text or texts:

7.1.2.1 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35: The narrative’s chronological and spatial framework, as well as certain events, are co-extensive with that of a biblical partner text, or with some extended part of it: The narrative in 1Bar 1:1–10 as well as some other components across the various part-texts (1Bar 1:10–5:9) retell or mirror the broad outlines and some of the details of a biblical story. 1Bar 1:1-14 reflects elements of 2 Kings 24-25; Ezra 1; and Jeremiah 24.

7.1.2.3 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35 only: The narrative is located at a particular point (“niche”) in a chronological-spatial framework also known from a biblical text, but there is no overlap in the narrative substance: the account of the production of the message to the Jerusalemites has no equivalent in Scripture.

7.1.3 There is prominent use of explicit quotations of biblical wording, whether in non-narrative or in narrative (but not in biblical commentary, for which see section 6): See especially 1Bar 2:2-3, 27-35, the latter quoted in name of Moses, though consisting mainly of verses from Jeremiah and Deuteronomy.

7.1.4 The text shares features of language with the Hebrew Bible, or exhibits tacit overlap with specific biblical wording, whether narrative or not.

7.1.4.1 There are pervasive biblical linguistic features (vocabulary, morphology or syntax) or a pervasive use of unspecific biblical language, such as generic biblical phrases or single words: The text features consistent allusive language relating to the earlier text (not necessarily only Bible).

7.1.4.2 The text contains prominently, but not necessarily frequently, the wording of specific biblical passages such as whole sentences or unique biblical phrases, used in a tacit manner. See also 8.1.4.1: This applies (not necessarily with respect only to Bible). Allusions to Bible are very strong in the prayer of 1:15-3:8 (Jeremiah, 2 Kings, Ezra); the Wisdom poem of 3:9-4:4 (Job 28; Deutero-Isaiah); and the concluding poems (Isaiah 50; 60-62).

7.1.5 The projected persona of the governing voice of the text, whether a narrative or not, is also known from a biblical text, or the governing voice assumes an epistemic stance similar to that of a biblical text.

7.1.5.3 The epistemic stance of the governing voice (narrative or not, first person or not) can be interpreted as falling into the same generic category as one of the following stances also adopted in biblical texts:

7.1.5.3.2 For the narrative frame part of 1Bar 1:1–2:35: The omniscient narration, as in Genesis-Joshua; or unrestricted knowledge of a described reality, similar to Genesis 1: This applies to the narrative framework, 1Bar 1:1–10a.

7.1.5.3.3 The plea to God of human prayer or supplication, as in Psalms: This applies to many passagess within the sections of the missive (in the Reading A, see 1.7) after 1Bar 1:15.

7.1.5.3.4 [The conveyance of wisdom on the basis of personal experience or learning, as in Proverbs, Qohelet: the exhortation to wisdom (1Bar 3:9–4:4) is not held in personal tones, and addresses the nation as such, on the topic of the national catastrophe. This means that the epistemic stance itself may also be distinct from that of personal knowledge, of the kind necessary to speak from individual to individual.]

7.1.6 For the non-narrative text of 1Bar 1:10–5:9: The range of themes in the non-narrative text is wholly or nearly contained within the specific range of themes found also in a biblical text: although the "themes" are very general, including sin and confession, divine punishment, praise of God, promise of redemption and end of exile, Jerusalem's children, etc., the fact that they almost all have clear biblical counterparts, usually in several biblical books (not just one specific one), is noteworthy; an example is 1Bar 1:15-2:12 compared with Dan. 7:7-14.

7.1.7 The sequence of themes in (at least) substantial parts of the non-narrative text is tacitly isomorphic with the sequence of themes in a biblical text: This applies to one passage of the text in particular, 1Bar 1:15-2:12 being isomorphic with Daniel 9:7-14.

7.1.8 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9: The non-narrative text pervasively or prominently presupposes the narrative fabric of biblical events/reported speech, beyond the contents of any specific biblical quotations that may occur: This applies to the whole text after the frame, from 1:15 onwards. The period of Babylonian Exile is in view.

7.1.8.1 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9: The text presupposing biblical narrative fabric has a thematic structure of discourse or description - with the proviso that these sections are not discursive/propositional as such (see 5.12).

7.2 Narrative or thematic correspondences, or overlap of specific wording, occur between the non-biblical text under discussion and other non-biblical texts in a manner that is prominent or pervasive.

7.2.6 There is extensive tacit overlap with the wording of a non-biblical partner text, whether in narrative or in non-narrative texts: this is unmistakable for part of the text, in that 4:36-5:9 manifestly overlaps with Ps. Sol. 11. There is sporadic overlap in the prose section with the LXX text of Jeremiah.

7.2.6.6 The 7.2.6. wording overlaps also constitute wording overlaps with a biblical text.

7.2.7 The projected first-person persona of the governing voice of the text, whether narrative or not, is also known from another non-biblical text: some of the sections within 1Bar 1:10–5:9 speak with voices that are, in a general sense, also used by other texts in the corpus, including the ones mentioned above in 7.2.6. However, this overlap is perhaps not sufficiently specific to make links when it is not also supported by verbal overlap.

7.2.8 [The range of themes in the non-narrative text is wholly or nearly contained within the specific range of themes found also in another non-biblical text: This applies only to 4:16-5:9, whose themes are wholly contained in Ps. Sol.11.]

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8.1 Standard forms or contents formulated in set phrases, set sentence formats, or clauses in a standard syntactic connection.

8.1.4.1 The expressive use of unmarked biblical wording whose function in the text’s discourse is enhanced or achieved by it being recognised as coming from a Scripture: see 7.1.4.2 (always Bible?).

8.1.6 For the sections in 1Bar 1:10–5:9: Speech report: occasional, quoting God or Jerusalem.

8.1.13 For sections between 1Bar 3:1–5:9: Declamatory sentence, confession, proclamation or affirmation: frequent, in various part-texts.

8.1.15 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9: Wish sentence: requests from God in prayer.

8.1.19 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9: Prediction of reward or punishment of behaviour in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: occasional.

8.1.20 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9: Recommendation of a particular behaviour or statement of an ideal type of person in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: occasional, in particular with the topic of knowledge itself, e.g. 1Bar 3:32 ff.

8.1.21 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9: Statement describing a reality (nature, creation, human nature) in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: occasional, in particular 1Bar 3:32 ff.

8.1.22 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9: Statement praising Torah in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: once, when the book of decrees (or "commandments", RSV) is mentioned together with nomos, 1Bar 4:1, and identified with wisdom.

8.2 Non-narrative small literary forms that impose on their components a standard functional relationship to each other, while grammar and syntax may vary:

8.2.2 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9: Self-contained question-answer unit in anonymous discourse: there are some examples, alongside unanswered (and therefore rhetorical) questions, in 1Bar 3:9–19.

8.2.5 For sections between 1Bar 1:10–5:9: The summary exposition, in a number of sentences, of theological ideas: there are some passages in various part-texts which fit this category, in particular as they express reflections on the meaning of historical events (see 5.12).

8.4 Small poetic form:

8.4.1 Occurrence of a song, poetic piece, rhythmic unit: the text is in poetic language from 3:9 onwards until the end (that is, part-texts 3 and 4 in the table of part-texts (Reading A) in Bibliography.

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10.1 The work consists of the juxtaposition of large constituent part-texts, each of which has its own thematic, lemmatic or narrative structure (e.g., for thematic part-texts, one of 1.1–3, 5.2–6, or 5.7.1–2 apply): In the reading here represented, the following four part-texts are merely juxtaposed: 1. the narrative of the production of the missive by Baruch, together with the text of that missive which contains a prose confession of sins from the perspective of the Jerusalemites (1Bar 1:1–2:35); 2. a prose confession of sins from the perspective of the exiles (1Bar 3:1–8); 3. a poetic exhortation to Israel to follow wisdom so as to avoid God's punishments (1Bar 3:9–4:4); 4. an exhortation to Israel first, and Jerusalem later, to take courage, from the divine perspective (1Bar 4:5–5:9, if taken in its greatest extent). Alternatively, the latter part may be interpreted as presenting itself as two separate part-texts (1Bar 4:5–4:29, 4:30–5:9), or even as three separate ones: 1Bar 4:5–29, incorporating in any case an extended speech by personified Jerusalem), 1Bar 4:30–35 (divine first person) and 1Bar 4:36–5:9, although this is not the line of interpretation taken here. In these variations of what in 1.7 is called Reading A, 1Bar thus consists of at least 4, but perhaps of up to 6, separate part-texts, merely juxtaposed. The alternative (Reading B in 1.7 and in the Bibliography) is to interpret the part-texts as forming sections INSIDE the missive (so that the missive ends in 5:9, not in 2:35), and thus do not form independent part-texts as such, but come under the same initial heading (1Bar 1:1–10a). It would involve use not of category 10.1 but of some aspect of 5.1 and 5.8, as the sections here identified as part-texts would then be taken to present themselves as producing a kind of thematic discourse. This is not the reading described in this Profile, although the interpretation here presented (as 10.1 part-texts) does not exclude thematic links or 'weak' functional complementation (see below).

10.1.2 The work juxtaposes one narrative and at least one thematic part-text: there is one narrative part-text (1Bar 1:1–2:35), which contains within itself the text of a message (4.4, 5.1), followed by three (or up to five) thematic, and thus non-narrative, part-texts, and which constitute a prayer, a speech to Israel regarding past calamities and wisdom, and a speech to Israel/Jerusalem regarding past calamities and future redemption, respectively, with the language of the last two also having poetic formation. The part-texts are not in all cases clearly distinguished, but in most cases there are several coniciding markers of difference in adjacency: change of perspective, change of topic, change of addressee, and in one case change of language from prose to poetry also. They are: 1. (1Bar 1:1–2:35) Narrative of the creation of the missive (1Bar 1:1–10a, “and they said”), together with the text of that missive (1Bar 1:10–2:35; for the internal structure, see table in Bibliography (Reading A). 2. (1Bar 3:1–8) A penitential prayer in prose by a first person plural voice situating itself in exile, perhaps as belonging into the same or a similar narrative situation as that depicted in 1Bar 1:1–10a. This is merely juxtaposed to 1 and without an explication of the relationship of voices, but could suggest an exilic counterpart of the penitential prayer by those in Jerusalem, possibly to be said “in the voice of the exiles” by the Jerusalemites, or more likely presented without any suggested linkage. 3. (1Bar 3:9–4:4) An exhortative piece in poetic language addressed to Israel in exile (“Why is it, O Israel, why is it that you are in the land of your enemies…foreign country”, etc., 1Bar 3:19 RSV) by a first-person voice (plural, cp. 3:35, 4:4). The persona of this voice is eventually identified as being part of Israel (“Happy are we, O Israel”, 1Bar 4:4). This piece thematizes the value of knowledge (episteme, 1Bar 3:20), and wisdom (sophia) and her paths (1Bar 3:23, 28), the latter being also identified with the “book (biblos) of the commandments of God and the law (nomos) that endures forever” (4:1, RSV). The piece also praises the power of God over nature/in creation. 4. (1Bar 4:5–5:9) A piece in poetic language in which a first-person singular addresses “my people” (laos mou). This may be the divine voice heard in 1Bar 4:34, or a different, human one. This section partly consists of a lament and consolation quoted from the words of a Jerusalem personified, 1Bar 4:9–29. At 1Bar 4:30 either the earlier voice of this piece (heard first in 4:5) appears to take over again, addressing Jerusalem repeatedly, speaking of the end of sorrow and revealing its persona to be that of God by speaking (only at one point) in the first person (“I will take away her pride”, 4:34, kai perielo, cp. LXX Num. 17:20). God refers to himself in the third person almost everywhere in this piece (2.2.5), but the one first-person occurrence could be taken to determine the perspective of the whole. The divine voice is not introduced at all, and no earlier speech report or speech instruction prepares it. The piece therefore appears to have God present himself as directly being “overheard” by the projected addressee as he addresses Israel and/or Jerusalem (depending where the piece begins), a structure not present in the Hebrew Bible, but perhaps in the Temple Scroll. This effectively creates a “dialogic” echo between the human voices that come before (and Jerusalem’s voice within this section), and the concluding, divine, answer, carrying a message of comfort. It can also be seen as a counterpart to the extended quotations of God’s threats of punishment cited within some of the preceding pieces. The unmarked switch of voices, somewhat reminiscent of Canticles, albeit without the speakers of pieces addressing each other directly, creates a new dimension for the whole text (and perhaps thus ruling out Reading B). Alternatively, one may feel that the text presents itself in such a way that it invites reading 4:30–35 as a single, stand-alone section, thus separating the first-person voice from 4:36–5:9, as well as from the part 4:5–4:29, which would remove the need to interpret the third-person references to God as part of God mentioning himself in his own speaking (2.2.5). If all these alternatives are rejected, then 1Bar 5:9 constitutes the end of this fourth piece, as well as of 1Bar overall. 5. [(1Bar 4:30–5:9) Alternatively, the earlier voice (1Bar 4:5–9) is human, and at 1Bar 4:30 begins a fifth section, with a new, divine, voice.]

10.1.2.1 Their sequential relationship suggests that they complement each other, at least weakly (e.g., as “biography –utterances”): these part-texts could well be meant to stand in a weak functional relationship with each other, as follows: Part-text 1 gives the specific situation of the "speaking" of all part-texts, the Babylonian Exile, as well as a penitential prayer from the perspective of the Jerusalemites (although penned by Baruch in exile); part-text gives a counterpart penitential prayer from the perspective of the exiles; 3. presents an account of the deficiencies which have brought Israel to this point ( implying that the sins mentioned in the earlier part-texts are the result of a lack of wisdom/nomos); 4. provides a turn to the positive, by exhorting Israel and Jerusalem, whose woes are rehearsed in the city's own perspective, to take courage and announcing (at least partly in the divine voice itself) that God will redeem Israel in the future. Furher more detailed lines of continuity and correspondence could be found, although these will all still come up against the fact that the governing voices and overall thematic concerns are clearly quite different in different part-texts, without 1Bar providing an integrative framework of voices and topic (but see Reading B explained in 1.7 and the second table in the Bibliography).

10.2 For 1Bar 3:9–5:9 only: The text consists of the juxtaposition of part-texts which are constituted by poetic or communicative-rhetorical formation, so that one of the points 3.1–4 applies to part-texts: The two or poetic sections are 3:9-4:4 and 4:5–5:9, although the latter may be subdivided further (into 4:5-29 and 4:30-5:9, or even into 4:5–29, 4:30–35 and 4:36–5:9).

10.2.1.2 For 1Bar 3:9–5:9 only: Some or all part-texts only show themselves as separate from each other by their contrast in adjacency, i.e. by point 3.4.

10.2.1.3 For 1Bar 3:9–5:9 only: There are cases of ambiguity concerning where one part-text ends and the next begins, if read in their textual sequence; but regardless of where the boundaries between part-texts are drawn, one of the points 3.2, 3.3 or 3.4 will be satisfied for all part-texts: this affects in particular the last section (here taken as one part-text), 1Bar 4:5–5:9; for details see table in Bibliography.

10.2.1.5 For 1Bar 3:9–5:9: The themes of individual part-texts are significantly disparate across the whole aggregate work.

10.2.1.7 For 1Bar 3:9–5:9 only: The formal characteristics of individual pieces are predominantly homogeneous across the whole aggregate text.

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11.1 For 1Bar 1:15–5:9: The non-narrative text projects its thematic concern as being mainly one or more of the following:

11.1.2 Moral values or value judgments, including practical instructions on proper behaviour or self-preservation.

11.1.7 Future events or future reward and punishment.

11.2 For 1Bar 1:1–10a only: The text is dominated by the reporting of emplotted events, whether or not in an overarching narrative format (4): Events of the past (or of the future, but not of norms)

11.2.1 For 1Bar 3:9–5:9 only: The reported events are those of a biblical past, or of a biblically foretold future.

11.3 The text is directly or indirectly addressed to God. Its specific contents are self-reflective regarding the governing voice, thematic in a diffuse manner or narrative (see also 3): this holds for many passages within 1Bar, both quoted within the narrative part-text and for parts of the subsequent part-texts.

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12.1 Sampling of genre labels applied to the text in secondary literature: Narrative+prayer+poems; Confession+Instruction+Comfort; Confession and prayers.

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Bibliography:

Text:  J. Ziegler, Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum Auctoritate Societatis Litterarum Gottingensis editum XV: Ieremias Baruch Threni Epistula Ieremiae (Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1957).

Popular online text: http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/septuagint/chapter.asp?book=45 (accessed 19/01/13)

Translations: O. C. Whitehouse, "1 Baruch", in R. H. Charles (ed.), The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 2 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913), vol. 1, pp. 569-595; Tony S. L. Michael, "Barouch", in A. Pietersma and B. G. Wright (eds.), A New English Translation of the Septuagint (New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 927-931; S. D. Fraade, "1 Baruch", in L. H. Feldman, J. L. Kugel and L. H. Schiffman (eds.), Outside the Bible. Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture, 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society/University of Nebraska Press, 2013), pp. 1545–1564, translation from the New Revised Standard Version. German: V. Hamp, Baruch Die Heilige Schrift in deutscher Uebersetzung (Wuerzburg: Echter Verlag, 1950). French: A. Gelin, Le Livre de Baruch, 2nd ed., La Sainte Bible-Bible de Jerusalem, XXIII (Paris: Cref, 1959).

Selected Studies: E. Tov, The Septuagint Translation of Jeremiah and Baruch (Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1976);  C. A. Moore, Daniel, Esther and Jeremiah: The Additions, Anchor Bible 44 (New York: Doubleday, 1977), pp. 255-316; D. G. Burke, The Poetry of Baruch: A Reconstruction and Analysis of the Original Hebrew Text of Baruch 3:9-5:9 (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992); O. H. Steck, Das apokryphe Baruchbuch (Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1993)

Overview of parts:

Reading A: the narrative of the missive and its quoted text end in 2:35 with the end of the quotation of God’s words, while 3:1–5:9 constitute three (or four) further pieces, so that all four (five) numbered here would be tacitly juxtaposed (10.1).

1.     (1Bar 1:1–2:35) Narrative of the creation of the missive (1Bar 1:1–10a, “and they said”), together with the text of that missive (1Bar 1:10–2:35), the latter internally structured as follows: 

1.1.   (1Bar 1:10–2:35) A section directly addressed to the Jerusalemites, including

1.1.1.     Introductory explanation (meta-communicative information) and instruction, 1Bar 1:10–15a (“and you shall say”)

1.1.2.     Wording of the prescribed penitential prayer (1Bar 1:15 “You shall say:…) ending 1Bar 2:35, containing also

1.1.2.1.         extended quoted speech of God 2:29 ff., ending in 2:35, which also constitutes the end of the missive and the end of the narrative-missive unity.

2.     (1Bar 3:1–8) A penitential prayer in prose by a first person plural voice situating itself in exile, perhaps as belonging into the same or a similar narrative situation as that depicted in 1Bar 1:1–10a. This is merely juxtaposed to 1 and without an explication of the relationship of voices, but could suggest an exilic counterpart of the penitential prayer by those in Jerusalem, possibly to be said “in the voice of the exiles” by the Jerusalemites, or more likely presented without any suggested linkage.

3.     (1Bar 3:9–4:4) An exhortative piece in poetic language addressed to Israel in exile (“Why is it, O Israel, why is it that you are in the land of your enemies…foreign country”, etc., 1Bar 3:19 RSV) by a first-person voice (plural, cp. 3:35, 4:4). The persona of this voice is eventually identified as being part of Israel (“Happy are we, O Israel”, 1Bar 4:4). This piece thematizes the value of knowledge (episteme, 1Bar 3:20), and wisdom (sophia) and her paths (1Bar 3:23, 28), the latter being also identified with the “book (biblos) of the commandments of God and the law (nomos) that endures forever” (4:1, RSV). The piece also praises the power of God over nature/in creation.

4.     (1Bar 4:5&‐5:9) A piece in poetic language in which a first-person singular addresses “my people” (laos mou). This may be the divine voice heard in 1Bar 4:34, or a different, human one. This section partly consists of a lament and consolation quoted from the words of a Jerusalem personified, 1Bar 4:9–29. At 1Bar 4:30 either the earlier voice of this piece (heard first in 4:5) appears to take over again, addressing Jerusalem repeatedly, speaking of the end of sorrow and revealing its persona to be that of God by speaking (only at one point) in the first person  (“I will take away her pride”, 4:34, kai perielo, cp. LXX Num. 17:20). God refers to himself in the third person almost everywhere in this piece (2.2.5), but the one first-person occurrence could be taken to determine the perspective of the whole. The divine voice is not introduced at all, and no earlier speech report or speech instruction prepares it. The piece therefore appears to have God present himself as directly being “overheard” by the projected addressee as he addresses Israel and/or Jerusalem (depending where the piece begins), a structure not present in the Hebrew Bible, but perhaps in the Temple Scroll. This effectively creates a “dialogic” echo between the human voices that come before (and Jerusalem’s voice within this section), and the concluding, divine, answer, carrying a message of comfort. It can also be seen as a counterpart to the extended quotations of God’s threats of punishment cited within some of the preceding pieces. The unmarked switch of voices, somewhat reminiscent of Canticles, albeit without the speakers of pieces addressing each other directly, creates a new dimension for the whole text (and perhaps thus ruling out Reading B). Alternatively, one may feel that the text presents itself in such a way that it invites reading 4:30–35 as a single, stand-alone section, thus separating the first-person voice from 4:36&‐5:9, as well as from the part 4:5&‐4:29, which would remove the need to interpret the third-person references to God as part of God mentioning himself in his own speaking (2.2.5). If all these alternatives are rejected, then 1Bar 5:9 constitutes the end of this fourth piece, as well as of 1Bar overall.

5.     [(1Bar 4:30–5:9) Alternatively, the earlier voice (1Bar 4:5–9) is human, and at 1Bar 4:30 begins a fifth section, with a new, divine, voice.]

Reading B: the narrative of the missive frames the whole of 1Bar 1:10–5:9, but within the missive there are four (or five) different extended sections, merely juxtaposed. This is a reading not described in this Profile.

1.     Narrative of the creation of the missive (1Bar 1:1–10a, “and they said”)

2.     Quoted text of the missive, that is, the sent “book”, consisting of a collection of diverse texts (but bounded by being all in the sent “book” and governed by the “and they said”):

2.1.  (1Bar 1:10–2:35) A section directly addressed to the Jerusalemites, including

2.1.1.     Introductory explanation (meta-communicative information) and instruction, 1Bar 1:10–15a (“and you shall say”)

2.1.2.     Wording of the prescribed penitential prayer (1Bar 1:15 “You shall say:…) ending 1Bar 2:35, containing also

2.1.2.1.         extended quoted speech of God 2:29 ff., ending in 2:35 as well.

2.2.  (1Bar 3:1–8) A penitential prayer in prose by a first person plural voice situating itself in exile, perhaps as belonging into the same or a similar narrative situation as that depicted in 1Bar 1:1–10a. This is merely juxtaposed to 2.1 and without an explication of the relationship of voices, but could suggest an exilic counter-part of the penitential prayer by those in Jerusalem, possibly to be said “in the voice of the exiles” by the Jerusalemites, or more likely presented without any suggested linkage.

2.3.  (1Bar 3:9–4:4) An exhortative piece in poetic language addressed to Israel in exile (“Why is it, O Israel, why is it that you are in the land of your enemies…foreign country”, etc., 1Bar 3:19 RSV) by a first-person voice (plural, cp. 3:35, 4:4). The persona of this voice is eventually identified as being part of Israel (“Happy are we, O Israel”, 1Bar 4:4). This piece thematizes the value of knowledge (episteme, 1Bar 3:20), and wisdom (sophia) and her paths (1Bar 3:23, 28), the latter being also identified with the “book (biblos) of the commandments of God and the law (nomos) that endures forever” (4:1, RSV). The piece also praises the power of God over nature/in creation.

2.4.  (1Bar 4:5–5:9) A piece in poetic language in which a first-person singular addresses “my people” (laos mou). This may be the divine voice heard in 1Bar 4:34, or a different, human one. This section partly consists of a lament and consolation quoted from the words of a Jerusalem personified, 1Bar 4:9–29. At 1Bar 4:30 either the earlier voice of this piece (heard first in 4:5) appears to take over again, addressing Jerusalem repeatedly, speaking of the end of sorrow and revealing its persona to be that of God by speaking (only at one point) in the first person  (“I will take away her pride”, 4:34, kai perielo, cp. LXX Num. 17:20). Alternatively, the earlier voice (1Bar 4:5–9) is human, and at 1Bar 4:30 begins a fifth section, with a new, divine, voice. It is even possible to think of 4:30–35 as a separate section, thus separating the first-person voice from 4:36–5:9, as well as from 4:5&‐4:29, which would remove any third-person references of God to himself in his own speaking. If all these alternatives are rejected, then 1Bar 5:9 constitutes the end of this fourth piece, as well as of the missive that begins in 1:10 (in this construction of 1Bar overall). It is, however, difficult to see how a piece which, as such, comes from the unmediated divine perspective, could be presented, in 1Bar overall, as having been included in the missive sent by Baruch and his companions to the Jerusalemites. Thus Reading A seems more likely.

2.5.  [(1Bar 4:30–5:9) If the last piece has first a human and later a divine voice.]



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