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Mishnah Tamid (Researcher: Robert Hayward):
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1.1 The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries).

Full profile (Bibliography at the bottom):
1.1 The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries).

1.1.1 The text refers to itself using a genre term, speech act term, verb or other term implying verbal constitution: at mTamid 7:3, the text speaks of itself up to this point as constituting a "Seder", that is, a ritual "Order".

1.1.2 The text speaks of itself as dealing with an overall theme (subject matter) or purpose, or as consisting of coordinated parts making a whole: At the end of mTamid 7:3 stands the deictic statement and attached prayer formula: "This is/was the order (seder)of the Tamid in the service of the House of our God. May it be (His) will that it be rebuilt swiftly, in our days." This statement, with reader hindsight, may be taken to characterize the overall theme of the text up until this point. (It is reported as having been cited and interpreted by R. Hiyya bar Adda in yMeg 2:7 73c39.) The following mishnah (7:4) identifies the Psalms sung by the Levites at the Tamid; in so doing, it is simply providing details of a topic (the Levitical singing) which has already been mentioned earlier in the text of 7:3. This mishnah also concludes with a reference to the future that is to come, "which shall be all Sabbath, rest for life everlasting".

1.1.5 Important text witnesses attest to a heading which is not integrated with the body of the text or with any introductory frame, implying one or more of the kinds of information under 1.1.1–4: The Budapest Akademia MS Kaufmann A 50 notes the end of the preceding tractate (Middot), and on the line immediately following provides the heading "Tamid Chapter 1", and before giving the opening words of the first mishnah. MS Parma 3173 likewise announces the end of the preceding tractate (Middot), and on the following line puts the heading "Massekhet Tamid". At the end of the tractate, the Kaufmann MS reports the completion of "seven chapters", without mentioning Tamid; MS Parma 3173 has a note that "Tamid" is completed.

1.5.1 There is a limited inventory of small forms which recur in a linear juxtaposition of units (e.g. 5.9).

1.5.2 The ways in which smaller units hang together or follow on from each other (section 9) are repeated again and again.

1.6 The approximate word count or other indication of comparative size is: c. 2100, using the electronic text at in a Word document word count (, accessed 11/09/2012).

1.7 The text’s Inventory profile should be seen in the light of the following further information on completeness, thematic progression, aesthetic effects, etc.: The text, which speaks of itself as "the Seder (Order) of the Tamid for the Service of the House of our God" (7:3), gives its reader the sense of being guided through a series of priestly actions, for the most part in their temporal sequence, taking place in the Temple over the period of one use day (distinctive regulations for Sabbath are noted at 5:1, 5). The themes represented in the text include discussions of the altar of burnt offering and preparation of it for the coming day; the Tamid lamb; the incense offering; the menorah and its maintenance; and the special regulations for the high priest, should he elect to take part in the Service. Beginning with the time before dawn, the text describes the routine of the ordinary priests within the Temple area: this part of the text (1:1) presents information displaying textual overlap with information found also in mMiddot, a state of affairs replicated elsewhere in the text (see further below, 7.2.5). The themes of the tractate are organized principally by means of a temporal sequence, as indicated above; this does not, however, preclude the organization of some themes by use of spatial language and information in the manner of mMiddot. Thus the reader is taken from the time before day-break (mTamid 1:1-2)through a sequence of events leading up to dawn (3:2) and early morning (the bulk of the text to the end of chapter 5) up to the afternoon (6:1). Temporal markers such as "until", "before", "when", "while", and "after" are prominent throughout. Information is supplied largely in "indicative" language, which both describes and prescribes the norms of conduct for the priests and other sacred ministers. The text employs quoted direct speech on a number of occasions; remarkably, it is put into the mouth of a priest designated simply "the appointed one", who is regularly presented as issuing instructions to his colleagues. This official is not mentioned by Scripture, which likewise never refers to any words spoken during the Tamid. The text's reports of direct speech, in respect of "the appointed one", of others engaged in the Service (for example, 3:2) and of those charged with uttering Berakhot and other liturgical formulae in the course of the Service (see 5:1; 7:2), are consequently striking. The text never quotes explicitly the Scriptural regulations for the Tamid. Indeed, explicit citation of Scripture is confined to 3:7 (where the text overlaps with mMiddot 4:2); 5:1; 7:2; and 7:4, the last mishnah listing by incipit the Psalms sung by the Levites on particular days of the week organized in temporal sequence. While disputes are rare, lists stand out as a prominent feature of the text (see 8.1.10), providing detailed information for the correct execution of the Service: they may, perhaps, have the character of "check lists" for individuals who needed to become familiar with their duties and their movements and positions during the ceremonies.

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2.1 The information conveyed in the text defines the perspective of the governing voice in the following way: The text is not narrative but the governing voice refers to utterances on the basis of unexplained knowledge of speech events of diverse periods and places.

2.1.2 The governing voice thematizes how it comes to know the text’s contents or its right to command obedience from the text’s addressee. Its perspective is presented as limited, referring either to evidence, or to personal experience (mere human knowledge). The governing voice presents or discusses norms whose commanding force is unlimited, but speaks from a perspective clearly distinguished from that of the ultimate law-giver: Normative material is communicated by the pervasive use of indicative forms, describing the details of actions necessary for the execution of the Service: these descriptions are at the same time prescriptive, setting out the norms for priestly conduct of the rites.

2.1.7 The governing voice (whether first or third person) is anonymous, that is, is not presented as tied to a specific personal identity (or to personhood in general).

2.1.8 [The governing voice speaks at no point in the first person (except for any and all persons/objects are mentioned from a third-person perspective: while occurring explicitly only once, there is a first-person perspective in the text. See 2.2.]

2.2 A first-person voice imposes its perspective on all (or almost all) knowledge or norms conveyed in the text: the first person plural occurs once, in a strategic position at the end of the text. See point 1.1.2.

2.2.3 The first-person governing voice is not identified by name or unique identifier, but speaks of himself/herself in the first person at least once.

2.4 The governing voice defines a horizon of knowledge as shared with the projected addressee by taking for granted the following linguistic usages or references (in selection):

2.4.1 Persons or unique objects referred to by proper name or by technical expression: note particularly references to the High Priest (for example, 3:8; 6:3; 7:1-3); the "young men (pirhe) of the priesthood" (for example, 1:1); the Prefect (Segan) of the priests (for example, 7:3); the Levites (for example, 5:6; 7:3); the head of the ma'amad (5:6); the hazzanim (5:3); and "the one appointed", who acts as a director of certain ritual activities (for example, 1:2; 3:1-2; 5:1-2; 7:1). for persons mentioned or presented in narrative usage; as characters; or topics, for example: such persons are not frequently named, but include Ben Qatin (1:4; 3:8); Gabini the herald (3:8); and Ben Arza (7:3). for persons quoted with direct speech in a non-narrative co-text, for example: Mattiya b. Samuel (3:2); R. Eliezer ben Diglai (3:8); R. Eliezer b. Jacob (5:2); and R. Judah (7:2). for Gods/mythical figures/supernatural beings, etc., for example: the Name of God is mentioned at 3:8 and 7:2, the last mishnah noting rules for its pronunciation with proper vocalization in the Temple, and the use of substitutes for the Name elsewhere. for locations, for example: almost all places named in the text refer to specific locations on the Temple mount or within the Temple buildings. Other place-names are rare: they include, for example, Jericho (3:8); Mount Mikwar (3:8); and Jerusalem (5:6). for times or calendar dates (specific to a language or culture), for example: the three annual festivals are mentioned at 2:2 under the designation "regalim"; Yom Kippur features at 3:8; and the Sabbath is mentioned at 5:1, 5. for documents, texts, books, etc. (identified through being referred to or quoted), for example: at 5:1, there is mention of the Ten Commandments and the Shema', the three constituent paragraphs of the latter being identified by incipit; specific Berakhot, named by incipit as 'emet we-yazib; 'avodah; and Birkat Kohanim are also specified. All these texts are to be recited; but it is not stated that they were contained in books or documents. The same point applies to the list of seven Psalms sung by the Levites set forth in 7:4 under the heading "The Song which the Levites used to utter in the sanctuary", each poem being identified by its incipit.

2.4.3 The text as a whole routinely employs the following language, knowledge of which is taken for granted: Rabbinic Hebrew. Additional language taken for granted in quoted speech or certain parts of the text is: Biblical Hebrew.

2.4.4 Special linguistic usages occur pervasively or prominently: Technical expressions for a particular subject matter: These refer (inter alia) to the details of the actual sacrifice and dismemberment of the Tamid lambs, and the procedures involved; the technicalities of the incense and its mode of presentation on the golden altar; and details of the menorah and its lighting and maintenance. Technical terms for particular parts of the Temple, and language specific to priestly duties, are also in evidence. Well known is the term magrepha (e.g., 2:1; 3:8; 5:6) whose precise meaning is subject of debate. Technical expressions for the meta-linguistic presentation of another text (see 6.9.4): These are rare, being confined to 3:7, where a quotation from Latter Prophets is introduced by the words: "and concerning it: it is expressed clearly by the agency of Ezekiel"; and 7:2, where Lev. 9:22 is introduced by the formula shene'emar. Other special linguistic usages: these are confined to the prominent use of unexplained loan words, for example, the Greek terms exedra (1:3); mechane (1:4; 3:8); nannos, and angkule (3:5); kitor (3:6); kerux (3:8); and psukter (5:6). The word sudarion (7:3) may be a loan word from either Latin or Greek.

2.5 The text contains deictic or other expressions referring to the governing voice’s time or place, or place it after/before some key event:

2.5.1 as part of the words of the governing voice: The final words of 7:2 represent a prayer that the sanctuary "be rebuilt speedily, in our days", indicating the time of the governing voice as being after the destruction of 70 CE.

2.7 The epistemic stance, knowledge horizon, moral stance and identity of the governing voice, and of the projected addressee, do not become thematic in the text.

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5.5 The text’s sequence of sub-topics (discursive or narrative) mirrors a temporal or spatial order, but without narrative emplotment between the sub-topics. Or it mirrors the sequence of units of meaning in another text (from single words to whole books), while not reproducing the relationships between those parts, not using quotations from it as lemmatic progression (i.e., no 6.1), and not creating narrative emplotment.

5.5.2 This order defines only a continuous substantial part of the text, as follows: A temporal order provides the sequence for a continuous text part thematizing norms or normative information: The text takes the reader through what is, in effect, a day's ordered routine, beginning in the hours before day-break (1:1-2), mentioning activities begun then and extending through the time of dawn (3:2), going forward into the early morning (the bulk of the tractate), and recording similar activities timed to take place in the afternoon (6:1). Throughout the tractate, repeated temporal markers such as "until"; "before", "when"; "while"; "Sabbath" used with reference to the activites under discussion are prominently in evidence. Additionally, the temporal order corresponds to a sequence of actions which is in itself, as a sequence, normative: The sequence of actions prescribed, from the clearing of the altar-ash before dawn to the conclusion of the afternoon Tamid service, is itself normative, the times for each constituent, sequential activity being carefully detailed and co-related for precise observance by the priests taking part. The regulations for the High Priest, should he wish to play a part in the Tamid ceremonies, are grouped on their own at 7:1; but these, too, assume and take for granted the temporal order prescribed in the earlier part of the text. A spatial or geographical order provides the sequence for the text’s themes (including any normative themes) in a continuous part of the text: In addition to the temporal order noted at, a spatial order may be occasionally perceived, inasmuch as the architecture of the sanctuary and its specific features determines the action of the priests. This is apparent in 1:1-2, which shares some information with mMiddot 1:1 about the geography of the Temple; in 3:3, where the position of the Chamber of Lambs is given; in 3:5, which gives the situation of the shambles and its appurtenances (see also mMiddot 3:5); 3:6-7, with its account of the directions in which the priest walked to arrive at the menorah; and many other instances where ritual actions depend on the places where they are performed.

5.7 Adjacent text parts constituting themes are merely juxtaposed or weakly conjoined, while there is no indication of an overall objective relationship (so no 5.6, 5.2.1, 5.3.1, 5.4.1 or–3).

5.7.1 Some measure of objective interrelatedness of all/almost all themes in the text is capable of expression by way of a summarizing term or phrase not noticeably more general than the text’s own words when speaking about its themes: The text's deictic statement at 7:2, "This is/was the order (Seder) of the Tamid for the Service of the House of our God" summarizes the relationship of practically every theme in the text.

5.8 The bulk of the text consists of small forms and patterns drawn from a limited set of formats for thematic articulation or for discussion (further section 8).

5.9 The text’s governing voice projects the accuracy or validity of its statements as:

5.9.2 Admitting discussion or disagreement, or the need for argument and evidence in principle.

5.9.4 The following argument types occur: Conceptual arguments as well as arguments from the quoted wording of another text (not necessarily in equal measure): There are few disputes in the text (see 8.2.1), but occasionally conceptual arguments are found alongside arguments from the quoted wording of Scripture: see 3:7 for the quotation of Ezekiel 44:2, and 7:2, where Leviticus 9:22 is cited.

5.10 The governing voice ascribes statements about the text’s thematic substance prominently to speaker characters as utterances.

5.10.1 Isolated utterances (or dialogues) are presented without a unifying emplotment, but tacitly presuppose a unified grid of story/history. The persons, groups or generic figures indicated as speakers tend to be only minimally identified or contextualized.

5.10.2 The text’s governing voice presents the speech of characters mostly in the exclusive function of disagreeing/agreeing with, or providing the reason for, a statement expressed by that governing voice.

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7.2 Narrative or thematic correspondences, or overlap of specific wording, occur between the non-biblical text under discussion and other non-biblical texts in a manner that is prominent or pervasive.

7.2.5 There are prominent single allusions to specific wording found in a non-biblical partner text: Mishnah Tamid contains many implicit but prominent allusions to other tractates of the Mishnah; in particular, there are many overlaps in wording with short sections of mMiddot. The following are given by way of example only; many others could be cited. In 1:1, allusions to mMidd 1:1 are prominent; 1:2 alludes to mYoma 2:1; 2:1 to mMiddot 3:1; 3:1 to mYoma 2:1 and 5:5; 3:3 to mMiddot 1:6; 5:1; 3:5 to mMiddot 3:5 and mSheqal. 6:4; 3:7 to mMiddot 4:2; 4:1 to mMiddot 3:5 and mSukkah 5:8; 5:3 to mMiddot 1:4 and mSheq. 5:1; 5:5 to mMiddot 3;1; 7:2 to mZeb. 7:1; and 7:3 to mYoma 3:9; 4:1.

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8.1 Standard forms or contents formulated in set phrases, set sentence formats, or clauses in a standard syntactic connection.

8.1.1 Conditional norm or hypothetical legal case: occasional (e.g., 3:2, 4, 9; 6:3).

8.1.2 Unconditional norm: pervasive.

8.1.4 Unit of a biblical quotation together with a hermeneutically dependent formulation; midrashic unit: rare. See, for example, 3:7 citing Ezekiel 44:2; and 7:2 citing Leviticus 9:22.

8.1.6 Speech report: pervasive.

8.1.10 List sentence enumerating items by words or phrases: common and prominent. There are at least eleven of these, detailing personnel, vessels and those who carry them; the members of the sacrificed lamb and those who bear them; the duties of individual priests, etc. Some of these have an almost "rubrical" quality: see especially the two lengthy lists at 4:2-3, which appears to give complete information about the topics covered. Very rarely is the information in these lists qualified; though see 3:8, where additional information is provided, introduced by the formula yesh 'omerim, "some state".

8.1.12 Explicit claim that in a particular formulation other information in the immediate co-text is being summarized or generalized: rare. See, for example, 2:3, summarizing species of woods fit for the altar fire.

8.1.13 Declamatory sentence, confession, proclamation or affirmation: mishnah 7:3 concludes with the proclamation that the worlds to come is all Sabbath.

8.1.14 Prayer, doxology, valediction or blessing: mishnah 7:2 ends with a prayer.

8.1.16 Descriptive sentence of a static (ocular) structure or "scientific" descriptive sentence: rare. See, for example, the description of the shambles and appurtenances at 3:5 (and compare mMiddot 3:5).

8.1.17 Report sentence of a singular event in the past which is not part of a narrative unit, nor of a mashal: rare. See, for example, 3:8 in the name of R. Eliezer b. Diglai.

8.2 Non-narrative small literary forms that impose on their components a standard functional relationship to each other, while grammar and syntax may vary:

8.2.1 Dispute unit: rare. See 3:2; 5:2; and 7:2.

8.2.2 Self-contained question-answer unit in anonymous discourse: rare. See 1:2; 2:3; 7:3.

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9.1 An extended portion or substantial proportion of the thematic text (or thematic part of a non-thematic text) projects its selection and sequence of themes as mirroring an objective order in the projected world, by one of the following means:

9.1.4 By mirroring a temporal or spatial order.

9.4 For an extended passage there is a juxtaposition of thematic units (sentences or groups of sentences) capable of being interpreted in the following manner:

9.4.1 As thematic cluster: the sentence themes of an extended passage have a stronger homogeneity/family resemblance with each other than with the preceding or succeeding co-text, but there is no clear beginning or cut-off point.

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11.1 The non-narrative text projects its thematic concern as being mainly one or more of the following:

11.1.3 Law, commandments or norms of behaviour.

11.1.6 Reports of the speech of named characters.

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12.1 Sampling of genre labels applied to the text in secondary literature: rabbinic work; legal collection

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In addition to the bibliography found in the Profile for the Mishnah as a whole, see also:

A. Walfish, "Megamot ra'ayoniot bete'ur hamikdash va'avodato bemasekhet Tamid uvemasekhet Middot", Mechqerei yehudah ve-shomron, 7 (1997), pp. 79–92

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