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War Scroll (1QM) [Fragment] (Researcher: Alexander Samely):
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1.1 The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries): if some scholars' reconstruction and reading is correct, it begins with a heading: "To [the Instructor. Rule of] War", 1QM 1:1 (reading, e.g., with Garcia and Tigchelaar, lamed rather than, with Yadin, waw-zayin, who reconstructed: we-ze[h sefer serekh] ha-milhamah, "And this is the book of the rule of the war"). The end of the scroll is not preserved.

Full profile (Bibliography at the bottom):
1.1 The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries): if some scholars' reconstruction and reading is correct, it begins with a heading: "To [the Instructor. Rule of] War", 1QM 1:1 (reading, e.g., with Garcia and Tigchelaar, lamed rather than, with Yadin, waw-zayin, who reconstructed: we-ze[h sefer serekh] ha-milhamah, "And this is the book of the rule of the war"). The end of the scroll is not preserved.

1.1.1 The text refers to itself using a genre term, speech act term, verb or other term implying verbal constitution:

1.1.2 The text speaks of itself as dealing with an overall theme (subject matter) or purpose, or as consisting of coordinated parts making a whole: the "war" in 1QM 1:1 appears in what is manifestly a kind of title, and appears to announce the subject matter of the text. This appears to be so even if neither "serekh" nor "sefer" were in front of the word "war" in the lacuna at the beginning of the first line.

1.1.3 The text uses expressions for characterizing itself as a bounded entity: The first sentence after the title (1:1) begins with the word "reshit" ("the first of..."), thus providing a signal for a "beginning" not just of the text as such, but of the subject matter (although some scholars actually take it as a one-word heading, "Beginning", see Beale, The Use, p. 44).

1.1.4 [The text introduces the governing voice, thereby indirectly marking its own boundedness.] [The text has a superscription concerning “to whom” it is addressed or for whose use it is: if the first sign is a lamed (see 1.1), then the opening (1QM 1:1) may have indicated a projected addressee or "user" of the text (like Psalm superscriptions), and some scholars suggest this is the "maskil", instructor. The respective plate 16 in Sukenik, Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University, shows the gap in front of "milhamah" extending to the right margin so that, at that point, there was no trace of a lamed or lamed-mem visible. The ed. Charlesworth give the lamed as certain, the mem as "essentially certain reading of a damaged character" (p. xi definition of the dot).]

1.2 The text presents its internal sequence of sentences (or larger parts) as mirroring the objective relationships of components in the projected world (an objective order), or projects its subject matter as self-limiting (5.3.). See further under 4, 5.2–5 or 6.: the fragmentary nature and missing ending of the text notwithstanding, it appears from the chronological progression of the themes that the text implies that it takes its own organization and boundedness from the boundedness of its subject matter, the sequence of actions and the succession of stages within a main battle of the eschatological war envisaged and explicitly introduced at 1QM 1:1.

1.6 The approximate word count or other indication of comparative size is: approximately 3940 words (hand-counted using the text by García Martínez and Tigchelaar, and including reconstructed words but making no allowance for lost lines or words). In other words, the complete text is certain to have been substantially longer, but perhaps unlikely to have been of a different order of magnitude.

1.7 The text’s Inventory profile should be seen in the light of the following further information on completeness, thematic progression, aesthetic effects, etc.: Overview of Parts: see 5.5. The fragmentary nature of the evidence renders the following Profile speculative for many points, since the applicability of most Inventory categories ought to be decided with an unimpeded view of the whole text. Some of the scholarship on this text sees it merely as a collection of diverse sources without any attempt to produce a unified text; see the criticism of Davies (p. 20) of Yadin's assumption of a unity for the text; Schultz, p. 86–7, lists the main difficulties of coherence. This is a separate issue from the question of whether the text was meant to be read as one text by the person creating it (even if compiled from earlier sources), in which case it is a kind of thematic progression or aggregate to be treated under section 5, or not, in which case it would fit under category 10.1 of the Inventory. The evidence of "divisions" is very clear (see 9.13), but that can strengthen as much as weaken the self-presentation of the text as a whole (namely, of thematic parts); it does not automatically mean that the text presented itself as a compound of individually complete texts (that is, 10.1). This question cannot be decided without knowledge of what was in the lacunae, and might have been difficult to decide even with such knowledge. The current Profile adopts the position of treating the text as if it presents itself as a certain unity from aggregate text parts, with points 5.4 or 5.5 setting out the indications why that may be appropriate: either a basic progression from the general (the generic battle) to the particular (the unique final battle and its stages), or a basic progression of envisaged chronology (the typical battle as repeatedly fought, the final battle as unique, because leading to final victory). The alternative one of these ways to read the text is that the it presents itself as a mere juxtaposition of part-texts, is indicated also in square brackets under 10.1. The Profile interprets the evidence of only one work of a "War Scroll" group of texts, namely the text indicated in the evidence of 1QM. For a clear overview of the relationship of that manuscript to other Qumran fragments containing either the same or a different recension of a work like this, or different texts on similar topics, see Alexander, Evil Empire (pp. 19–20 and 22).

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2.1 The information conveyed in the text defines the perspective of the governing voice in the following way:

2.1.1 The text does not thematize how the governing voice comes to know the text’s contents (or its right to command obedience from the addressee), but suggests that its knowledge (or authority) is unlimited: this is the impression gained from the fragmented text. It is, however, possible that some source of information was acknowledged at some point now lost, although apparently not at the beginning. The text’s governing voice speaks from the perspective of unlimited authority in commanding the addressee’s obedience: the text is basically prescriptive, and the authority to set down how the final battle and other aspects will be performed is – apparently – not limited.

2.1.7 The governing voice (whether first or third person) is anonymous, that is, is not presented as tied to a specific personal identity (or to personhood in general).

2.1.8 The governing voice speaks at no point in the first person (except for any and all persons/objects are mentioned from a third-person perspective: this is true subject to some guesswork regarding the lost text. It is likely, but not certain, that the first person pronouns occurring in 10:1 ff. (together with direct address of God) are, as clearly is the case in later colummns, part of a direct speech which is reported, but whose speech report has been lost in the lacuna of the preceding column. In other words, the first person does not, according to this reconstruction, occur in the governing voice, so that 2.1.8 applies while 2.2 does not.

2.2 [A first-person voice imposes its perspective on all (or almost all) knowledge or norms conveyed in the text: a first-person language occurs in 1QM 10:1 ff. but is likely to belong to quoted direct speech, not the governing voice at all. Similar cases occur in the subsequent columns, with the speech reports preserved. See 2.1.8.]

2.4 The governing voice defines a horizon of knowledge as shared with the projected addressee by taking for granted the following linguistic usages or references (in selection):

2.4.1 Persons or unique objects referred to by proper name or by technical expression: for persons mentioned or presented in narrative usage; as characters; or topics, for example: names for nations and groups are mostly biblical, and otherwise referring expressions are formed from generic phrases; some biblical names, including Aron and members of his family, and Moses as author of an earlier text also quoted, are mentioned. Most personal names are biblical, and the defeat of Goliath by David is referred to using these names, inside prescribed speech (1QM 11:1–2). [for persons quoted with direct speech in a non-narrative co-text, for example: verbatim utterances are prescribed (rather than reported) as part of ritual acts of pronouncement, blessing and cursing, for certain groups at certain stages of battle or preparation for battle. They are not like quotations of Rabbis on certain themes, they are part of the prescribed action. The same goes for prescribed phrases to be written on implements such as trumpets and banners.] for Gods/mythical figures/supernatural beings, etc., for example: many different ways to refer to God (mostly El) occur both in the governing voice and in prescribed speech (which includes prayer or praise). The tetragrammaton is absent (even when employing biblical verses whose MT have it, see; Tov, Scribal Practices, p. 239), but the expression "adonai" (trans. by scholars as "Lord") occurs twice in prayer-like prescribed speech (1QM 12:8, 18) Among the divine epitheta are: "great and terrible God" (1QM 10:1), and also "God of elim", literally "God of gods" (presumably meaning "God of angels") and King of kings. Angels and spirits are mentioned generically as such, and also by some angelic names and presumably also by the term "elim". Belial is named throughout and receives some epitheta also. On these names and expressions, see Yadin, pp. 230–32, although he does not treat "adonai". for locations, for example: a large number of geographical and ethnic names are mentioned in cols. 1 and 2, and occasionally throughout. Most but not all are biblical. There is no exact correspondence between the list of nations and places in col. 2 and the list of nations in Gen. 10, but some relationship appears likely; see Yadin, p. 28, who thinks a sequence from the nearer to the farther is adopted by the list for the sons of Shem, p. 27, and the detailed examination in Schultz, pp. 183–204. for times or calendar dates (specific to a language or culture), for example: festivals are scarcely mentioned, and if so, only in generic terms, e.g. at 2:4, which however includes the plural "Sabbaths" (the word in the singular also occurs in a transferred sense in 1QM 2:8). for documents, texts, books, etc. (identified through being referred to or quoted), for example: verses in Deuteronomy, Numbers and Isaiah are quoted: 1QM 10:2/Deut. 20:2–4, with substantial differences of wording compared to MT, see convenient synopsis in Yadin, Scroll of the War, p. 304 note; 1QM 10:6/Num. 10:9 (as in the previous passage, without MT's tetragrammaton); 1QM 11:6/Num. 24:17,19, practically identical with MT; 1QM 11:11–12/Isa. 31:8, identical with MT. These are either explicitly assigned to God or to Moses or both ("by the hand of Moses") and have quotation formulae; a "[Bo]ok of the Rule of his Time" and [Book of Wa]r" appear to be mentioned 1QM 15:5 as containing instructions of the kind the text itself is presenting. A "book of the names of all their hosts" (those of the chosen ones of the holy people, apparently) is said to be with God in 1QM 12:2.

2.4.2 circumlocutions, names or descriptions employed as “code” names: without knowledge of the text's context and entirety it is difficult to distinguish singular referring expressions with rhetorical flavour from names or descriptions used as coded references to pesons. Among the expressions that might have been used as code names (as well as biblical allusions in some cases, in particular from Daniel 11–12), are: "kings of the North" (1QM 1:4), the word "Kittim" (passim) "sons of justice" (1:8), "assembly of the elim/gods" ((1QM 1:10), ubiquitous "sons of light" and "sons of darkness" and a fairly large number of variations of those phrases. See Collins, Use of Sobriquets. It may be worth noting that the mottoes to be written upon the trumpets and banners (cols. 3–4) can have the same linguistic structure as code names for persons, e.g., "Princes of God" (3:3).

2.4.3 The text as a whole routinely employs the following language(s), knowledge of which is taken for granted: Hebrew.

2.4.4 Special linguistic usages occur pervasively or prominently: Technical expressions for a particular subject matter: in addition to what was said about code names in 2.4.2, there appears to be some very few cases of technical or euphemistic usage with normative implication: the word "spring" (makor) being used for some bodily source of impurity (presumably a discharge from the genitals), the expression "place of the hand" in connection with camps and an exclusion zone around them, as well as the conspicuous modification of the biblical expression "nakedness of a thing" (Deut. 24:1) to "nakedness of a bad thing" (all 1QM 7:6–7). Biblicizing language, such that the text may be assumed to project itself as having a link to texts today known as biblical (see there are many turns of phrase which betray or are meant to indicate the influence of biblical wording and diction, and a large number of specific expression from biblical texts are adopted; see The text uses the waw-conversive, employing past tense verbs with future sense, although not entirely consistently.

2.5 The text contains deictic or other expressions referring to the governing voice’s time or place, or place it after/before some key event:

2.5.1 as part of the words of the governing voice: there is a faint but pervasive indication, by the very subject matter of an eschatological war expressed in normative and future tenses, that the governing voice presents itself as being earlier than the events to be performed. There is a unique temporal position to these normative topics (in contrast to most other normative topics, such as the prohibition to steal).

2.6 [The text presents itself as speaking to certain persons, groups or entities, explicitly projecting a certain image of its addressee.]

2.6.1 [The governing voice uses apostrophe, second-person grammatical forms or first-person exclusive or inclusive “we”: there is use of terms of address in what probably is prescribed direct speech, rather than the governing voice. See 2.1.8.]

2.7 The epistemic stance, knowledge horizon, moral stance and identity of the governing voice, and of the projected addressee, do not become thematic in the text: although the addressee is named in 1QM 1:1 as "la-maskil" (according to the reconstructed text), this does not significantly change the implicit nature of the stance and identity of the governing voice. Also, the maskil is never addressed directly.

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4.12 [The narrative pace is slowed down or changed by the occasional or regular occurrence of extended descriptions: although the text is not a narrative, the prescribed physical action is occasionally suspended by lengthy descriptions of implements of war, stressing their workmanship and aesthetic aspects.]

4.12.1 [There is extended description of one or more static objects: See the qualification in 4.12.]

4.13 [The narrative pace is slowed down or changed by frequent or prominent quotation of speech, thought or text: Although the text is not a narrative, there is a similarity between the manner in which a narrative is slowed down by reported speech, and in which the prescribed future physical action (the battle behaviour) is slowed down by extended sections of prescribed speech taking place before, during or after battle: 1QM 10:1–12:18, which is it appears addressed to God and also the fighting men by the High Priest, but the beginning and end of this direct speech is not preserved; 1QM 13:2–18 (transition to next column not preserved) , which is introduced as the prescribed words of the priests, levites and elders as a blessing of God; 1QM 14:4–18 (transition to next column not preserved), which is again introduced as a blessing of God, and as a "hymn of return" after battle (1QM 14:2); 1QM 15:7–16:1 (apparently), which are the prescribed words of the "priest assigned for the time of vengeance"; 1QM 16:15–17:9 (with transition back to the governing voice preserved as "After these words.."), which are the words the High Priest is supposed to address to the fighters when the battle apparently hangs in the balance; 1QM 18:6–19:8, which are the words of the High Priest and others blessing God at the setting of the sun (partly repeating wording used in earlier battle speeches); it is possible, as the reconstructed text suggests, that the very last line of which there are still traces, 1QM 19:13, introduce another act of praise with prescribed wording.]

4.13.4 [The quotation differs from the surrounding text in its form (e.g. poetry), style or language: some of the prayer-like speeches exhibit heightened language or figurative expression.]

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5.4 The text’s sequence of sub-topics suggests a progression from the more general to the more specific, or vice versa if accompanied by explanation, as follows: this is one possibility which appears to be compatible with the ambiguous evidence of the fragment. The other one appears to be 5.5. They even could apply both together, in that what is "generic" also covers only the "middle" years of the 40-year war.

5.4.1 The progression embraces all substantive parts of the text; or, any extra themes are explained: as an alternative explanation of the progression of themes to 5.5, the following could be projected by the text (partly along the lines of Duhaime, War Texts): after an introductory section, including a general chronology of the war years, the text sets out the generic components of battle, including equipment, personnel and tactics (that is, movements of troops during battle): that is, the generic battle, the battle in the abstract; this section is then followed by a specific depiction of some final or decisive encounter which is envisaged as one unique and particular occurrence (albeit still predictive-normative), which ends in the irreversible defeat of the hosts of Belial. For the details, see under If this is the overall tripartite structure of the text (i.e., if the wording in the lacunae was compatible with this interpretation or promoted it), then the most basic thematic progression of the text would be from the generic (the battle in the abstract) to the specific (the final battle in particular). Duhaime's schema implies such an overall contour: divides it into the following main thematic sections: "Introduction" (1:1–bottom), I. Organization and Tactics (col. 1 end – col. 9 bottom), II. War Prayers (col. 9 end – col. 14 bottom), and III. The War against the Kittim (col. 14 end – 20/end?), which he each subdivides further (War Texts, pp. 14–20). The schema fails to express that the "war prayers" are direct speech, and thus part of either the prescription of the generic battle, or of the anticipated unique battle, so do not constitute a basic category in its own right (even if they were "sources" used by the maker of the War Scroll).

5.5 The text’s sequence of sub-topics (discursive or narrative) mirrors a temporal or spatial order, but without narrative emplotment between the sub-topics. Or it mirrors the sequence of units of meaning in another text (from single words to whole books), while not reproducing the relationships between those parts, not using quotations from it as lemmatic progression (i.e., no 6.1), and not creating narrative emplotment: this appears to be one possibility of interpreting the fragmentary evidence; another one seems to be 5.4. They might even apply both together, in that the battles of the "middle" years of the 40-year war are also treated as one typical or "generic" battle. It is also possible that the lost wording could have indicated other relationships than these two. See also the possibility, in my view remote, noted under 10.1.

5.5.1 This order includes all parts of the text (excepting any frames), as follows: A temporal order provides the sequence for norms or normative information: The text could project a distribution of themes following what is essentially a temporal succession, from the opening of the period of the eschatological battles to the conclusion of the last or ultimately decisive of the battles. The main body of the text begins with the words "the first (!) attack/conquest of the sons of light is to all upon lot of the sons of darkness, the army of Belial..." (1QM 1:1 f.). However, thereafter it is difficult to keep track of the intended chronology in the same column; column 2 clearly envisages a recurrent situation of service of priests and levites at the sanctuary (2:3) during a period of years in which the release year plays a special role. A schema of apparently forty years of war is envisaged, a first period leading up to the first release year, and then "thirty-three years of war which remain" (2:6), and then a total of 29 years are then enumerated in their sequence (presumably with the recurring release year deducted, which are still in the total of 33), together with the nations that will be targeted in each of these years. (These 29 years appear to be, sequentially numbered:, that is, 8th to 13th, 15th to 27th, 29th to 34th, 36th to 40th.) This sequencing of annual campaigns (2:10–14) is not then set out in the sequence of the subsequent text. Rather the subsequent themes, mostly indicated by explicit headings and thematically articulated by vacats (see 9.12/13), are normative details, presumably generally applicable throughout the years of the war: (a) of the types of trumpets and their inscriptions, which partly appear to align with actions or stages in a battle (2:16–3:11); (b) the banners and their inscriptions (3:13–17), and one shield's inscription (5:1–2); (c) the formation of battle lines and their movement in battle, including precise descriptions of arms and their dimensions and decorations, the ages of soldiers, and long speeches to be delivered by appointed personages (see 4.13), although it is very difficult to be confident about this being a continuous section, due to the lacunae and the potentially repetitive nature of some of the information (5:3–14:18); (d) another speech by a special priest, introduced with some elaboration but perhaps still continuous with the stages of a typical battle as described in (c) (15:1–16:2); (e) the sequential actions of another battle, clearly marked as later than the speech in (d), but involving the act of "opening" "the gates of battle" (16:4) and a first and second trumpet signal for attack, so apparently a newly beginning battle, followed chronologically by another speech (ending 17:9), further actions apparently ending in the defeat of the forces of Belial and the Kittim (17:15–18:5), followed by the setting of the sun and another prescribed speech, a thanksgiving to God and a visit to the slain enemies on the morning of the next day (16:3–19:13, the last legible line of the fragment). Cp. the table of subject matter given in Van der Ploeg, Le Rouleau, pp. 5-6, who divides according to the division into columns (which in itself is irrelevant to a thematic ordering). This sequence of specific themes could be read as implying, as the most fundamental order, a temporal sequence, as follows: the beginning, overview of years and repeated Temple duties (also Sabbatical years), then the repeated typical battle for most of the years (general, but considered to cover the "middle" years in a chronological schema) including some prescribed speeches, and finally the final or most decisive big battle which seals the defeat of Belial in a climactic, and concluding showdown (and also including some prescribed speeches). In other words, the most fundamental sequence of themes, into which all other themes are slotted as subordinate (e.g., the battle formations, or the inscriptions on trumpets, and the speeches), is the chronology of the years of the war. Additionally, the temporal order corresponds to a sequence of actions which is in itself, as a sequence, normative: the prescribed actions and speeches relate to certain points in time in the normative schema, so that the performance of one "triggers" the obligation for the performance of the next. This adds a further dimension of coherence to the chronological sequence, as, for example, in Mishnah Yoma.

5.9 The text’s governing voice projects the accuracy or validity of its statements as:

5.9.1 Being taken for granted or being self-evident: note that those explicit scriptural quotations which occur (and could be taken as providing "evidence" for something), are placed into the mouth of speakers performing prescribed speech acts. As for the pervasive but implicit use of biblical wording (, it could be interpreted in two different directions: either as an arrogation of the authority of a "biblical" voice, forestalling any questioning of the information given by the governing voice; or as an implicit "argument" for the truth of what the governing voice is saying (akin to explicit quotations as proof texts). Without access to the specific historical context of text production it appears impossible to decide this. But on the text surface, no discourse on validity is being conducted. The reason clauses occasionally supporting a norm (see 8.1.8) are different in nature; and they also occur in biblical passages quoting divine speech.

5.11 The text mentions no unique individuals as characters, or mentions them only in frame positions: the quoted speakers (high priest, priests, etc.) are part of the scenario envisaged, not part of the discourse on the scenario.

5.12 [The text thematizes the meaning of historical or narrative events and summarizes, alludes to or refers to events as evidence, but does not create sustained emplotment (contrast 4.7): this happens occasionally, but only within prescribed speech; the single most important example being perhaps 1QM 11:1–2, where the victory of David over Goliath is explained by David's trust in "your great name and not in sword and lance".

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7.1 Narrative or thematic correspondences, or overlap of specific wording, occur between a non-biblical text and one or more biblical texts in a manner that is prominent or pervasive.

7.1.3 There is prominent use of explicit quotations of biblical wording, whether in non-narrative or in narrative (but not in biblical commentary, for which see section 6): there are a few examples of biblical wording quoted verbatim or approximately, and introduced as quotations (e.g., by lemor) from a divine text (with or without being mediated by Moses). See for details.

7.1.4 The text shares features of language with the Hebrew Bible, or exhibits tacit overlap with specific biblical wording, whether narrative or not: there is both some generic overlap with biblical language, and specific phrases which are also found in biblical books. There are pervasive biblical linguistic features (vocabulary, morphology or syntax) or a pervasive use of unspecific biblical language, such as generic biblical phrases or single words: the use of the waw conversive is perhaps the most important phenomenon to mention here. The text contains prominently, but not necessarily frequently, the wording of specific biblical passages such as whole sentences or unique biblical phrases, used in a tacit manner. See also There is a plethora of cases like this. It is noteworthy that biblical wording is adopted allusively both from passages where Scripture uses it for the same topic as the War Scroll, and from passages that have nothing to do with it (on the face of it), so that both a purely verbal echo of Scripture and a thematic echo of Scripture can occur, and can occur combined. Thus Goliath at 1QM 11:1 is referred to as "a mighty man of valour", with "a mighty man" echoing 1Sam. 17:51 speaking about Goliath; however, with the added word "of valour", the expression – ish gibbor chayil – recalls the passage in Ruth 2:1 which describes Boaz in these terms (see Yadin, Scroll of the War, p. 309, note). The thematically important parallels to Daniel 11–12 include very clear verbal overlap (see Beale, Use, 42–66 with reference to col. 1; Wenthe, Use). There is an interesting case of the tacit adoption of a biblical phrase of legal import (erwat davar, e.g., in Deut. 24:1), again expanded (by "ra'") and thereby given an important restriction (Niehr, "'arah", p. 349); see

7.1.8 The non-narrative text pervasively or prominently presupposes the narrative fabric of biblical events/reported speech, beyond the contents of any specific biblical quotations that may occur. The text presupposing biblical narrative fabric has a thematic structure of discourse or description: perhaps the single most important example is the apparent link to the table of nations (Gen. 10) in column 2 (but that part of Scripture is not, as such, concerned with narrative emplotment in the strong sense of that word, as it is a genealogical-geographical enumeration); see Schultz, pp. 183–204. See also under 7.2 and

7.2 Narrative or thematic correspondences, or overlap of specific wording, occur between the non-biblical text under discussion and other non-biblical texts in a manner that is prominent or pervasive.

7.2.4 The wording or specific theme of self-contained thematic units is occasionally identical to those of another non-biblical text (or part-text), without being marked as quotations from that other text (does not apply if 7.2.6, 7.2.8 or 7.2.9 applies; not applied to Mishnah/Tosefta Tractates): certain phrases, which for modern scholars constitute some of the hallmark of "sectarian" texts, occur in other Qumran texts, among them "sons of light" and "sons of darkness", the special use of "Belial" and "Kittim", and other terms. There are also substantial cases of overlapping information with respect to the list of nations in column 2 with Jubilees and Genesis Apocryphon, which links all three texts also to Gen. 10 (see See Schultz, pp. 183–204. Such overlapping units are found in text types which differ from each other in their thematic arrangement: this applies to some extent, for example, the overlap of "sectarian" information with Pesher Habakkuk.

7.2.5 There are prominent single allusions to specific wording found in a non-biblical partner text: it is impossible to know if some of the wording similarities noted in 7.2.4 are in fact cases of deliberate allusions.

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8.1 Standard forms or contents formulated in set phrases, set sentence formats, or clauses in a standard syntactic connection.

8.1.2 Unconditional norm:

8.1.4 [Unit of a biblical quotation together with a hermeneutically dependent formulation; midrashic unit: there are a small number of explicit statement-quotations units where the biblical text is proof of the accuracy of a statement; they all occur in quoted prescribed speech.] The expressive use of unmarked biblical wording whose function in the text’s discourse is enhanced or achieved by it being recognised as coming from a Scripture: the biblical expression "nakedness of a thing" (Deut. 24:1) is reflected in the expression "nakedness of a bad thing" (all 1QM 7:7).

8.1.6 Speech report: occurs occasionally as part of the prescribed acts at certain stages of battle, together with the wording of, usually quite extensive, speeches.

8.1.8 Reason clause: occasionally accompanies prescribed behaviour, e.g. 1QM 6:8.

8.1.10 List sentence enumerating items by words or phrases:

8.1.13 [Declamatory sentence, confession, proclamation or affirmation: only in some of the quoted prescribed speech.]

8.1.14 [Prayer, doxology, valediction or blessing: only in some of the quoted prescribed speech.]

8.1.18 Sentence making a prediction of a future event: the text uses future forms pervasively, although they have a predictive force that is somewhat subsumed under their prescriptive force, as if to say: this will happen, and when it does, this is how you must perform it. See 11.1.3.

8.4 [Small poetic form: almost certainly only occurring in direct speech according to prescribed wording, not in the governing voice. For details see 4.14. and 4.13.4, and 2.1.8.]

8.4.1 [Occurrence of a song, poetic piece, rhythmic unit: see the qualification in 8.4.]

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9.1 An extended portion or substantial proportion of the thematic text (or thematic part of a non-thematic text) projects its selection and sequence of themes as mirroring an objective order in the projected world, by one of the following means:

9.1.1 By dividing a larger topic by a constant principle (or set of principles) of subordination/coordination: this is true, for example of the passages where the battle lines are described, leading to a mention of the weaponry, each type of which is then described in its shape, dimensions, material and workmanship, whereupon the next aspect of the battle line is described (see, e.g., 1QM 5:5), or their clothing (1QM 7:10) or ages (e.g. 1QM 6:13; as a whole block of coherent information, 1QM 7:1–3, interrupting the description of battle lines). The topics "inscriptions on trumpets", or "inscription on banners", etc. are clearly organized in a hierarchical manner in this way also, proceeding from a generic heading and dealing with each item in turn.

9.6 An extended portion or substantial proportion of the text continuously explicates local thematic transitions, by means of:

9.6.1 Use of conjunctions: conjunctions which indicate temporal progression (e.g., the stages of a battle or its aftermath) are occasionally used (e.g., "and after these words", 1QM 17:10).

9.6.2 Use of announcement of themes for text parts, full-sentence headings or summaries: see 9.12.

9.12 Important manuscripts divide the text explicitly into parts by the use of single words or incomplete sentences which constitute sub-headings: 1QM has a number of such headings.

9.12.1 This division involves the use of meta-textual terms: the term "serekh" (rule) is repeatedly used as the term that indicates the nature of what follows.

9.13 Physical evidence from antiquity potentially shows non-verbal signals indicating (an interpretation of) the text’s thematic division: 1QM shows regular use of vacats (for both the remainder of a line, or whole blank lines) and many of them clearly reflect divisions of the thematic substance of the text; see, e.g., Schultz, pp. 42–45. (There are, however, also some examples of vacats that appear to have no such meaning.)

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10.1 [The text consists of the juxtaposition of large constituent part-texts, each of which has its own thematic, lemmatic or narrative structure (e.g., for thematic part-texts, one of 1.1–3, 5.2–6, or 5.7.1–2 apply): given the fragmentary nature of the evidence, it cannot be excluded with certainty that the text presented itself merely as a compound of juxtaposed part-texts. Certain apparent inconsistencies or overlaps can be interpreted as supporting such a reading (e.g., the Kittim appear to be defeated at the beginning, and yet the final battle also is against them, etc.; see Alexander, and cp. 1.7). This is, however, extremely unlikely, if the text as a whole is considered. Its heading or beginning is clearly comprehensive for all its contents; the introductory nature of the first two columns, and the progression of themes (see my table of contents in the bibliographical section of this Profile and the entries under 5) appear to make it unlikely that the text projected itself merely as a collection. As always for Inventory Profiles, this is a question of the self-presentation of the text as a whole, not one of whether it used pre-existing sources or texts.]

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11.1 The non-narrative text projects its thematic concern as being mainly one or more of the following:

11.1.3 Law, commandments or norms of behaviour: the field of norms lies entirely in a future which is anticipated as coming unconditionally. In other words, the norms are not projected as being for some eventuality which may or may not arise; they will be required to be applied at some future date.

11.1.7 Future events or future reward and punishment: future events make up the main subject matter of the text; however, these are mostly prescribed actions for a unique situation in the future, not predictions of future events in a descriptive mode (alone). See 11.1.3.

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12.1 Sampling of genre labels applied to the text in secondary literature: "rule", rule book, apocalypse, liturgy (for the holy war), allegorical-dramatic-liturgical composition; script for a celebration of the covenant; (tactical or military) manual; (utopian) tactical treatise (overview in Duhaime, War Texts, 55–60).

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Y. Yadin, The Scroll of the War of the Sons of Light against the Sons of Darkness, translated by B. and C. Rabin (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962), J. Carmignac, La Règle de la guerre des fils de lumière contre les fils de ténèbres (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1958); J. P. M. van der Ploeg, Le Rouleau de la guerre (Leiden: Brill, 1959); J. Duhaime, "War Scroll", in J. Charlesworth (ed.), The Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2: Damascus Document, War Scroll, and Related Documents (Tübingen and Louisville, KY: Mohr and Westminster John Knox Press, 1995), pp. 80–203; E. L. Sukenik, The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University (Jerusalem: Magnes, 1955), presenting plates and transcription of the War Scroll, plates 16–34, 47; F. García Martínez and E. J. C. Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition, pp. 112–144.


In addition to the editions above: M. Wise, M. Abegg Jr., and Edward Cook. 1996. The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation (San Francisco: Harper, 1996); G. Vermes, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (London: Penguin Classics, 2004); J. Duhaime, "War Scroll", in L. H. Feldman, J. L. Kugel and L. H. Schiffman (eds.), Outside the Bible. Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society/University of Nebraska Press, 2013), pp. 3116–3151.

Selected Studies:

P. R. Davies, IQM, The War Scroll from Qumran. Its Structure and History (Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1977); J. Duhaime, The War Texts: 1QM and Related Manuscripts (London: T & T Clark International, 2004); B. Schultz, Conquering the World: the War Scroll (1QM) Reconsidered (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009); J. J. Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans, 1998). P. Alexander "The Evil Empire: The Qumran Eschatological War Cycle and the Origins of Jewish Opposition to Rome", in Sh. Paul et al. (eds.), Emanuel: Studies in Hebrew Bible, Septuagint and Dead Sea Scrolls in Honor of Emanuel Tov (Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp. 17–31; M. A. Collins, The Use of Sobriquets in the Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls (London: T&T Clark, 2009); E. Tov, Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert (Leiden: Brill, 2004); G. K. Beale, The Use of Daniel in Jewish Apocalyptic Literature and in the Revelation of St John (Lanham, New York, London: University Press of America, 1984); D. O. Wenthe, "The Use of the Hebrew Scriptures in 1QM", Dead Sea Discoveries, 5 (1998), pp. 290–319; H. Niehr, "'arah", in G. J. Botterweck, H. Ringgren and H.-J. Fabry (eds), Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, vol. 11 (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2001), pp. 332–349.

The recension of the text here described is that contained in one continuous if fragmented manuscript, 1QM.

Overview of Parts:

1. Introductory scenario and summary of the war (1:1–7)

I. “At first”: war against the lot of the sons of darkness, army of Belial

II. in particular (or at first): Edom, Moab, Ammon…Philistia, Kittim of Ashir, violators of the covenant versus: sons of Levi, of Judah, of Benjamin, the exiled of the desert (and/or id est: of the desert of the nations), exiled sons of light

III. “And after the war”: they will go up from there..

IV. [opponents:] Kittim of Egypt; “he” against the kings of the North and the horn of Israel; a time of salvation for the nation of God and a time of rule for all the men of his (God’s) lot and of everlasting destruction for all the lot of Belial; great panic among the sons of Japhet; Ashur will fall; rule of Kittim will come to an end, no remnant, no escape for the … of darkness.


2. (after vacat): Summary of the final phases of the war? (1:8–17+)

I. [sons of jus]tice will shine to all edges of the earth and up until the end of all the appointed times of darkness…joy for all sons of light.

II. “And on the day on which the Kittim fall…”: a battle and savage destruction (day determined by God), between the following parties: congregation of elim (angels) and assembly of men, sons of light and lot of darkness;

III. time of suffering for the nation redeemed by God

IV. hastening till eternal redemption is fulfilled;

V. and on the day of their war against the Kittim, they shall go forth in three lots on both sides, and the 7th lot, the lot of God decides. (anticipated action at the very end of the time of war?)


3. Arrangements after regaining Jerusalem (in the first phase of the war) (2:1–6)

I. “fathers of the congregation: fifity-two…”


4. Overview of the 40 (33 remaining) years of war, minus sabbatical years (2:6–14)


5. Details of the battle (a typical or generic battle?) (2:16–14:18)

I. Inscribed appurtenances of war (preparations)

i. Rule for trumpets and inscriptions (2:16–11)

ii. Rule of banners (3:13–4:17)

iii. Shield of the Prince of the whole congegration (5:1–2)

II. Arrangements of battle units, equipment and movements of lines (“Rules of arrangements of units of war”) (5:3–14:18)

i. formations of lines (5:3–14)

a. inscriptions and craftsmanship of arms (5:3–4)

ii. arrangements of lines, movement of lines (5:16–18+, 6:1–6)

a. inscriptions and craftsmanship of javelins and other arms (6:2–4)

iii. cavalry formations (6:8–17+)

a. character of mounts and riders/ages/arms (6:11–17+)

iv. ages of various troops and commanders; exclusions of youths, women, blemished persons; purity of body and camp (7:1–7)

v. groupings of priests and levites accompanying the troops (7:9–18+)

a.  priestly gaments (7:10–11)

vi. sequence of priestly trumpet or ram blasts and movements of troops (8:1–9:9)

vii. “Rule of changes of the order (serekh) of the units of war” (9:9–18+)

a. war towers, their shields and the inscriptions on the shields (9:12–18+)

viii. 1st war speech/prayer 1 (beginning before 10:1–12:17+)

ix. 2nd war speech/prayer, introduced by speech report (13:1–2, speech 13:2–18+)

x. 3rd war speech/prayer (תהלת המשוב), introduced by speech report (14:1–4, 14:4–14:18+)

6.  Depiction of a unique and decisive (the final?) scenario of war and battle, probably in chronological order of stages (15:1–19:14)

I. setting: “For this will be a time of suffering for Israel and a service of war against all the nations…” (15:1–3)

II. 4th war speech/prayer, introduced by setting and speech report (15:4–7, 15:7–16:1)

a. summary of prescription: they shall act in acc. with this rule (ha-serekh ha-zeh [anaphoric or cataphoric, or both?]) while standing opposite the camp of Kittim (16:3)

III. next stage in the action (“afterwards”): priests blow trumpet of memorial and shall open the gates of battle… (16:3–9)

IV. next stage in the action: When [Belial] girds himself to come to the aid of the sons of darkness… (16:11–13)

V. next stage in the action: 5th war speech/prayer, introduced by speech report (16:13–15, 16:15–17:9)

V. next stage in the action: “after these words” the priests shall blow for them to arrange the units of the line… (17:10–17+), mention of Kittim and others

VI. summary of a stage/general scenario “when the mighty hand of God is raised against Belial and all the army of his dominion with an everlasting blow” (18:1–3): Belial, Assyria, sons of Japhet, Kittim, horde of Belial

VII. next stage in the action: elimination and sunset. “At that time the priests shall blow….trumpets of remembrance and all battle lines shall be collected against them…” (18:3–5)

VIII. next stage: sunset and 6th war speech/prayer, introduced by speech report (18:5–6, 18:6–8; 18:10–19:8)

IX. next stage: next morning with speech report and perhaps 7th war speech/prayer (19:9–13, 19:14?).



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