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Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum (Pseudo-Philo) (Researcher: Robert Hayward):
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1.1 The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries): The text may mention indirectly its own existence and implies or mentions its own boundedness, see 1.1.3; text witnesses also have a number of titles, see 1.1.5. However, the conclusion of the text may be lost: there is scholarly disagreement about this (see Jacobson, pp. 253-254). There appear also to be lacunae in the text at 16:17; 37:2 and following 37:5 (see James, pp. 19-21).

Full profile (Bibliography at the bottom):
1.1 The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries): The text may mention indirectly its own existence and implies or mentions its own boundedness, see 1.1.3; text witnesses also have a number of titles, see 1.1.5. However, the conclusion of the text may be lost: there is scholarly disagreement about this (see Jacobson, pp. 253-254). There appear also to be lacunae in the text at 16:17; 37:2 and following 37:5 (see James, pp. 19-21).

1.1.1 The text refers to itself using a genre term, speech act term, verb or other term implying verbal constitution: [see 1.1.5].

1.1.3 The text uses certain expressions for characterizing itself as a bounded entity: Most witnesses begin the text with the words Initium Mundi, though the form(De)Initio mundi is also found, along with Incipit Genesis; in Genesim. All these openings recall the opening of the first book of the Hebrew Bible Bereshit, or the first book of the LXX, Genesis.

1.1.5 Important text witnesses attest to a heading which is not integrated with the body of the text or with any introductory frame, implying one or more of the kinds of information under 1.1.1–4: The text is known to modern scholarship under various titles; but it is impossible to know which, if indeed any, of these designations might be at all original. Jacobson (vol. 1, p. 197) notes the evidence, which may be summarized as follows: Philonis Antiquitatum Liber (Fulda-Cassel ms., probably 14th century); Antiquitates or Liber Antiquitatum (editio princeps of Johannes Sichardus, title page); Antiquitatum Biblicarum Liber (Sichardus, heading of text); Philonis Iudaei Biblicarum Antiquitatum Liber Finis (Sichardus, end of printed text); Philonois Iudaei Antiquitatum Biblicarum Liber incerto interprete (witness K on page facing start of text); Biblicarum Antiquitatum Liber Philonis Iudaei (witness K, heading at start of text); Philonis Iudaei Antiquitates Biblicae (Vienna ms., heading in front of text). Modern scholars are unanimous that the ascription of the text to Philo is mistaken: possible reasons for this misleading attribution are discussed by Jacobson, pp. 196-197. Some extant witnesses set at the opening of the text proper: De Successione Generationis Veteris Testamenti; Historia Philonis ab initio mundi usque ad David regem; Quaestiones super Genesim. See Jacobson, pp. 197-198. The antiquity of these titles is not at all certain.

1.2 The text presents its internal sequence of sentences (or larger parts) as mirroring the objective relationships of components in the projected world (an objective order), or projects its subject matter as self-limiting (5.3.). See further under 4, 5.2–5 or 6: in that the biblical narrative from the beginning of Genesis to the beginning of 1 Kings is taken as a thematic framework within which subthemes and micro-topics, all related to this basic biblical narrative, are inserted at various points. .

1.6 The approximate word count or other indication of comparative size is:

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2.1 The information conveyed in the text defines the perspective of the governing voice in the following way:

2.1.1 The text does not thematize how the governing voice comes to know the text’s contents (or its right to command obedience from the addressee), but suggests that its knowledge (or authority) is unlimited.

2.1.1.1 In narrative, the governing voice’s perspective tacitly is that of someone “present” at all events equally, regardless of their time, place, or nature (e.g. thoughts or private utterances of characters): The epistemic perspective of the text’s governing voice is of the same “omniscient” status or normative authority as that of the anonymous voice in the biblical partner text. LAB opens in a manner evidently similar to the opening of the first Book of Chronicles. The text throughout speaks in the manner of the "historical books" of the MT and LXX, its affinities with the Books of Chronicles being particularly marked.

2.1.7 The governing voice (whether first or third person) is anonymous, that is, is not presented as tied to a specific personal identity (or to personhood in general).

2.1.8 The governing voice speaks at no point in the first person (except for any 2.2.4.3) and all persons/objects are mentioned from a third-person perspective.

2.4 The governing voice defines a horizon of knowledge as shared with the projected addressee by taking for granted the following linguistic usages or references (in selection):

2.4.1 Persons or unique objects referred to by proper name or by technical expression:

2.4.1.1 for persons mentioned or presented in narrative usage; as characters; or topics, for example: The Latin forms of biblical names often suggest that the translator of LAB was working from a Greek text; the forms of the non-biblical names are very often unknown to us, individual names in this category only rarely coinciding with names found in Jubilees, 1 Enoch, Syriac Baruch and 4 Ezra, the texts with which LAB appears to be most closely associated.

2.4.1.3 for Gods/mythical figures/supernatural beings, for example: the pagan deity Ba`al (36:4; 38:1, 3); the angels named as Ingethel and Zeruel (27:10); Nathaniel (38:3); Fadahel (42:10); and Zervihel (61:5)

2.4.1.4 for locations, for example: many of them biblical, many also non-biblical. The Latin of the biblical place names again seems to have reached us through a Greek version of LAB, and the forms of many non-biblical place names likewise have a Greek appearance.

2.4.1.5 for times or calendar dates (specific to a language or culture), for example: the Jewish calendar is presupposed and taken for granted with references to the festivals of Pesah (13:4, Weeks (13:5), Trumpets (13:6) and Booths (13:7); the 17th day of the fourth month (19:7 = 17 Tammuz, related to m.Ta`an. 4:6 and parallels: see Jacobson, vol. 1, p.626); sixteenth day of third month (23:2 = 16 Sivan: see Jacobson, vol. 2, p. 711).

2.4.1.6 for documents, texts, books, etc. (including quoted words whose source is taken for granted), for example: The Book of the Law (25:13); Book of the Judges (35:7; 43:4); Book of the Kings (of Israel) (56:7; 63:5); and references to book written by the judge Kenaz (26:1, 2); and mysterious books of the Amorites (26:3, 7, 8).

2.4.3 The text as a whole routinely employs the following language(s), knowledge of which is taken for granted: Latin, representing "a fairly straightforward, uncomplicated, and far from illiterate prose style...most likely of the fourth century...far removed from Ciceronian or even Livian or Plinian norms" (Jacobson, Vol. 1, p. 278). The text contains numbers of transliterated Greek words: holocaustoma (3:8, and often thereafter); ometocea (9:2); pammixia (10:1); psalphinga (11:4); citona (13:1 machaera (65:3), and many others. There are also numerous Hebraisms, such as the use of adjicere or apponere followed by a verb in the infinitive meaning "to do again"; participle followed by main verb to represent Hebrew Infinitive absolute and main verb; the expression et factum est (more than 30 times) and the repeated use of ecce, probably for Hebrew hinneh (more than 100 times). The unusual word anticiminus (45:6), "adversary", may represent an original Mastema. The given etymology of the name Samuel (51:1)is explicable only on the basis of Hebrew; and the name Visui (8:13) is almost certainly a misunderstanding of the Hebrew of Genesis 46:17, which reads "and Isui".

2.4.4 Special linguistic usages occur pervasively or prominently: in the description of the festivals, the priestly garments, and the sacrifices (see especially 13:1-10).

2.4.4.4 Biblicizing language, such that the text may be assumed to project itself as having a link to texts today known as biblical (see 7.1.4.1): The biblicizing style is apparent in the pervasive joining together of sentences using et, and expressions such as et nunc, et erit cum, et post haec. This biblicizing language never seems to vary: the prose is remarkably consistent in its use of these features.

2.4.4.5 Other special linguistic usages: traditional calque "Dominus" to refer to the God of Israel.

2.5 [The text contains deictic or other expressions referring to the governing voice’s time or place, or place it after/before some key event: 19:7 and its reference to the 17th day of the 4th month is interpreted by some scholars as a reference to the day of the Destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE; but the matter is disputed. The reference to the 7000 year duration of human history at 28:8 is too vague for the purposes of this category.]

2.5.1 as part of the words of the governing voice: see 26:15, where governing voice reports that Judge Kenaz stored up precious stones with the ark and the tablets of the Law, "and they are there unto this day".

2.5.2 [as part of the words of a quoted character, but with probable implications also for the governing voice: But this is far from clear. God has been speaking in 19:6, and the reference to the 17th of the 4 month is found at the end of his speech, thopugh it is not certain that the words should be attributed to Him.]

2.6 The text presents itself as speaking to certain persons, groups or entities, explicitly projecting a certain image of its addressee.

2.6.2 The projected addressee is characterized as having a certain moral or epistemic stance, or as standing in contrast to another group’s moral or epistemic stance: The addressee is Israel as a nation (for example, 10:6), sometimes symbolically referred to as a vineyard (for example, 12:8) and as God's own perople (10:7): Israel is contrasted with the Gentiles particularly at 9:1, 5; 18:13; 43:5.

2.6.4 The governing voice directs questions at the projected addressee which are marked as rhetorical or as suggesting the audience assume a particular epistemic or moral stance: for example "and the rest of the deeds of ... are they not written in the book of ...?" (AS) (still needs making specific).

2.7 The epistemic stance, knowledge horizon, moral stance and identity of the governing voice, and of the projected addressee, do not become thematic in the text.

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4.1 The text narrates events which are strongly emplotted, making reference to interlocking happenings, characters, motivations, causes, times or locations.

4.1.1 The text narrates a complex series of events not presented as leading towards only one crisis and solution, nor as contributing to only one person's tale: The narrative presents several “crises” and/or several sets of characters, such that the biblical history of Israel from Adam until the death of Saul is re-told with numerous additions, omissions, and alterations, the outline of the biblical narrative still being clearly visible. The many biblical characters treated are not provided with biography; and the narrative does not centre on one character, although some individuals, like Kenaz, Moses, Phineas, and Amram are given a certain prominence.In particular, events relating to Israel's leaders, their character, and their suitability for leadership are emphasized and anlaysed throughout chapters 24-65. The period of the biblical Judges and the time of Saul's monarchy, which raised profound questions about the nature of leadership in Israel, are very prominent in LAB.

4.1.4 The narrative foregrounds apparently exact information on the absolute and relative timing of events: for concerns with chronology, see (for example) 3:6-7; 5:3, 8 (the Flood); 3:10; 16:3; 23:13; 26:12; 19:13-15; 20:16; 28:8 (?) (the time of the End of the world); 8:14; 14:4 (the duration of the sojourn in Egypt, and see calculations by Amram in 9:3); and the length of time the Temple stood (19:5,7,).

4.1.5 The narrative foregrounds quantifiable non-temporal information: Exact numbers of persons are given; there is a census with exact numbers given after Noah's Flood (5:3-8) and in the time of Moses (14:1-4); numbers of descendants of Jacob are catalogued (8:7-9). Genealogical lists dominate the opening chapters (1:1-2:10; 4:1-2, 6-17). Other information is given in list form (for example) the plagues in Egypt (10:1)and the persons involved in LAB's the tower of Babel incident (6:3).

4.2 The event sequence is projected as related to the sequence of text parts as follows:

4.2.1 The report sequence mirrors the projected chronological sequence of events mostly or wholly, not precluding 4.2.2–5: This remains the case, even though speeches put into the mouths of characters may refer to events in the past, or even the future, from the point of view of the speaking character.

4.2.2 There is use of prolepsis or analepsis: (prolepsis for example Tobit 3:17) so that not all events are told in the sequence of their happening. The speeches of characters can refer to past events not related in narrative order, such that (for example) the story of Isaac's sacrifice is not related in its chronological setting, but described by Balaam (18:5), Deborah (32:1); and Seila (40:2) at a later stage of the narrative; the story of Jacob's sheep and their fertility is related with reference to Numbers 17 (17:2); the birth of Jacob and Esau is related by Deborah (32:5), as is the slaughter of the Egyptain first-born (3216).

4.2.3 There are chronological gaps which are explicitly managed or signposted: There is pervasive use of phrases like "after these things"; "and then"; "and it came to pass".

4.8 [The text provides scene-setting information, other than the introduction of an I-narration.]

4.8.1 [There is an explicit introduction of the chronological and/or spatial setting of the action: At times, the chronological details are very precisely marked, while on other occasions general markers like "at that time", "and after these things" are found.]

4.8.2 [There is an explicit introduction of the main character(s): The text offers only brief and general introduction of its main characters, apparenly assuming knowledge on the part of the addressee of major biblical figures like the Patriarchs and Moses, and the Judges. Yet even central figures like Kenaz, who is a mere name in the Bible, are but briefly introdcued (25:2).]

4.9 There is prominent or sustained characterization of key figures in the narrative.

4.9.2 All characterization is achieved only through reporting the actions, speech or thoughts of the characters ("dramatic"): Where the biblical narrator might offer an "editorial" sketch of character, LAB tends to leave a character's personality, etc, to emerge from speeches and actions which the character performs: see, for example, the case of David's selection for kingship (59:1-4) and contrast with 1 Samuel 16:1-13.

4.9.3 A figure is characterized by her or his moral or religious traits: Characters are regularly depicted as representing some particular religious or moral stance which is expressed through their activities or their speeches, the latter featuring strongly in LAB's presentation of characters, gathering strength as the text progresses.

4.9.3.1 Moral/religious traits are linked to the ethnicity and/or gender of the figure: The people of Israel as a whole has been granted the Law, which instils in them religious and moral traits superior to any others: see 11:1; 19:8-9. Individual characters who live according to the commandments of the Torah are singled out for praise by LAB. Only when Israel forsakes the Law can it be broken: see 18:13, where Balaam recommends the involvement of Gentiles in a plan to destroy Israel.

4.10 A character’s relations to her/his community are foregrounded, including any two-fold social environment (e.g. a diaspora setting).

4.10.1 A main character is portrayed as being integrated in one societal environment but as in conflict with a second environment: LAB's portrayal of the Judges emphasises the moral and religious qualities of those Judges over against the Gentile outsider oppressing Israel; and the fidelity of the Judge to Israelite "environment" is crucial to his or her success in leading the people to victory over enemies. The theme of legitimate leadership is strong in LAB's presentation of these characters.

4.10.3 A main character is portrayed as being integrated in her/his single societal environment: and those named biblical characters like Moses and Samson who operate in two societal environments (according to the biblical narrative) are presented as firmly wedded to their Israelite culture.

4.11 Supernatural characters appear in the narrative, whether introduced casually, or accounted for elaborately: for example named angels and foreign deities: see 2.4.1.3; also God throughout can, and does, initiate actions (for example, LAB 19:6; 31:2; 44:6). So also (evil) angels can work with magicians to cause havoc: see LAB 34:1-5.

4.12 The narrative pace is slowed down or changed by the occasional or regular occurrence of extended descriptions.

4.12.1 There is extended description of one or more static objects: (for example, as in Aristeas) which slows down the narrative pace. This slowing down is noticeable in particular instances, especially in the lengthy description of precious stones dealt with by the Judge Kenaz (26:10-11).

4.13 The narrative pace is slowed down or changed by frequent or prominent quotation of speech, thought or text.

4.13.1 The quotation constitutes a plot-driving event in its own right: This is a strongly marked feature of LAB, with almost every character voicing words which provide causation or motivation for actions and events detailed in the narrative.

4.13.1.1 The quotation divulges earlier events which the governing voice had left out of its own account of the earlier period: Characters refer to events which had taken place before their time (see above, 4.2.2.), and these events often push the narrative forward or provide motivations for further action.

4.13.2 Quoted speech/thought provides a comment on the events (4.13.1 does not apply): particularly in speeches put in the mouths of characters at the end of their lives (19:2-5; 24:3-4) and following critical happenings (32:1-17).

4.13.4 The quotation differs from the surrounding text in its form (e.g. poetry), style or language: The fact that LAB is extant only in a Latin translation makes this difficult to demonstrate; but some speeches are specified as laments (24:6; 28:5; 33:6; 40:5-7); blessings (21:10; 24:3); psalms (21:9 ff.; 32:1-12; 58:4; 60:1-2).

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7.1 Narrative or thematic correspondences, or overlap of specific wording, occur between a non-biblical text and one or more biblical texts in a manner that is prominent or pervasive: but occasionally sporadic, between LAB and several biblical texts. The overlaps most clearly occur between LAB and the Pentateuch, the books Joshua to 2 Kings, and the two books of Chronicles. Occasional references to the Latter Prophets also occur.

7.1.1 Characters correspond between the non-biblical narrative and the narrative of a biblical text or texts: There is overlap of narrative characters between LAB and the Bible, with the main characters in the biblical narrative portions from Genesis to 1 Kings making regular appearances in LAB.

7.1.1.1 Some or all main characters of the text correspond to main characters in a biblical partner text: This correspondence very likely gave rise to the title by which the text is generally known today, in that the correspondence recalls that in evidence in Josephus's work Jewish Antiquities.

7.1.2 Chronology, physical setting or emplotment correspond between the non-biblical narrative and the narrative of a biblical text or texts: Overlap and relationship of chronological and spatial framework and chain of events between the Bible and LAB is very prominent. While points of detail in chronology may sometimes differ, the text from the outset sets its narrative in the times and spaces indicated by the biblical narrative.

7.1.2.1 The narrative’s chronological and spatial framework, as well as certain events, are co-extensive with that of a biblical partner text, or with some extended part of it: The overall chronological and spatial framework of the narrative is co-extensive with that of the biblical narrative from Genesis to 2 Kings (and occasionally beyond that timeframe). LAB's principal chronological markers are all clearly biblical: the Flood, Israel's sojourn in Egypt and its duration; the duration of the Temple; and the regularly recurring Festivals. There is an interest in the time of God's "remembering the world", presumably a reference to the last days, which may reflect the interests of the book of Daniel.

7.1.2.1.2 The narrative is told in more detail than that of a biblical partner text, or contains more components that slow down the narrative pace (4.6, 4.12 or 4.13): Thus: the terms of God's covenant with Noah (Genesis 8:21-22) are extensively elaborated (3:9-10); the episode of the Tower of Babel (Genesis 11:1-9) is greatly expanded to include Abraham and his part in a complex narrative of events surrounding the Tower(6:1-8); the crossing of the Red Sea is described with reference to the reactions of the Israelite tribes and their division into three groups (10:2-5); Bala'am's personal thoughts on his activities, not mentioned in the Bible, are given in detail (18:1-12); Deborah's song (Judges 5) is greatly extended to include references to israel's past and future (32:1-7); and many other such examples could be cited.

7.1.2.1.3 The text tends to narrate the story through events described in less detail or through fewer events than a biblical partner text: Thus: in the account of Abraham, the Patriarch's visit to Egypt (Genesis 12:10-13:1) is omitted, as is most of the Bible's account of Abraham's relationship with Lot (Genesis 13:7-11); most of the Bible's narrative about Isaac, with the exception of the Akedah, is not represented; the complex relationship between Jacob and Laban (Genesis 29:2-31:54) is largely passed over in silence, only isolated incidents being reported in the context of later reported events (17:3). Many other examples could be cited.

7.1.2.1.4 Some of the narrative’s sub-plots or episodes, mostly corresponding to those of a biblical text, differ from each other in the amount of detail provided if compared to the biblical text: The text narrates an overall continuous story with a substantial number of episodes also found in the biblical narrative, with some of them “faster” and some of them “slower” than the biblical partner text.

7.1.2.1.4.1 Among the sub-plots or episodes with more detail are some or all of the ones that have no biblical counterpart: These would include the deliberations and activities of Amram (9:3-9); the division of the Isrselites at the Red Sea (10:3-5); descriptions of the tribes' sins, and of Amorite gemstones, in the Kenaz episode (25:9-13); and Eli's lengthy speech to his sons (52:2-4).

7.1.2.2 While the narrative covers the same chronological-spatial ground or plot as a biblical text, it lacks extended speeches found in that biblical text: The details of the commandments given at Sinai are noticeably abbreviated. The ten commandments, with some interspersed commentary, are represented (11:6-13); and the laws of the tabernacle, its service, and the festivals are summarized (11:15; 13:1-9); but the bulk of the laws related in Exodus-Deuteronomy is omitted.

7.1.3 There is prominent use of explicit quotations of biblical wording, whether in non-narrative or in narrative (but not in biblical commentary, for which see section 6): [NOT SURE ABOUT THIS] This seems to be the case occasionally, as at 53:10, where God speaks to Samuel and quotes his own words to Moses as given at Deut. 22:26, and when Josua quotes as words of God the words of Genesis 15:9 (at LAB 23:6), and Psalms 18:9 at LAB 23:10.

7.1.4 The text shares features of language with the Hebrew Bible, or exhibits tacit overlap with specific biblical wording, whether narrative or not: LAB opens in a manner evidently similar to the opening of the first Book of Chronicles; and its literary style is strongly redolent of biblical books, with biblical prose texts representing an apparent model for this text. The critical editions of Kisch and Harrington (the latter reproduced by Jacobson) indicate exact correspondences (as far as can reasonably be ascertained by careful scholarly enquiry) between parts of LAB's text and sections of Hebrew Bible: the relevant sections are presented in italic print. Entire paragraphs of LAB's text correspond to the Bible, and correspondence at the level of the sentence and the phrase or single word is very common. Exact correspondence in wording between LAB and Bible is less in evidence, however, in the chapters treating of the period of the Judges before Samuel. A useful discussion of biblical quotations in LAB is that of Jacobson, JSP 9 (1989), pp. 47-64.

7.1.4.1 There are pervasive biblical linguistic features (vocabulary, morphology or syntax) or a pervasive use of unspecific biblical language, such as generic biblical phrases or single words: This is likely to be the case; but the fact that we have a translated text before us makes it impossible to be sure. Some vocabulary reflects the Old Latin version; some the Vulgate; some the LXX, and some the Hebrew. The evidence is set out in Jacobson's commentary, and leaves little doubt that biblical vocabulary in one form or another is a almost certainly a pervasive feature of LAB.

7.1.4.2 There is prominent employment of unmarked expressive use of biblical wording (see 8.4.1), that is, tacit quotations of specific or unique biblical wording which is not reformulated in the text’s “own” words. See, for example, the use of Isa. 64:4 ff. in divine speech to Kenaz (26:13); Gen. 18:30 in the mouth of Gideon (35:6); and Isa. 29:18 put into Samuel's speech at 53:13.

7.1.4.2.1 The tacit overlap of specific wording extends regularly to whole sentences or to extensive sentence groupings, found alongside sentences or sentence parts not found in that biblical partner text: This is a recurring feature of LAB, particularly in its early chapters (very marked in chapters 1-20), but continuing throughout and prominent in the two final chapters (65-66).

7.1.4.3 The tacit overlap of wording takes place across language boundaries, with respect to the current language of the text (this point does not apply to 6.13 cases): in that the text is extant mainly in Latin and some other languages other than Hebrew.

7.1.5 The projected persona of the governing voice of the text, whether a narrative or not, is also known from a biblical text, or the governing voice assumes an epistemic stance similar to that of a biblical text.

7.1.5.3 The epistemic stance of the governing voice (narrative or not, first person or not) can be interpreted as falling into the same generic category as one of the following stances also adopted in biblical texts:

7.1.5.3.2 The omniscient narration, as in Genesis-Joshua; or unrestricted knowledge of a described reality, similar to Genesis 1.

7.2 Narrative or thematic correspondences, or overlap of specific wording, occur between the non-biblical text under discussion and other non-biblical texts in a manner that is prominent or pervasive: There are correspondences between LAB and four particular non-biblical texts which have been observed by modern scholars, those texts being 1 Enoch, Jubilees, Syriac Baruch, and 4 Ezra. Wording-specific overlaps between LAB and these texts are, however, not really in evidence in the case of the first three texts named; and the languages in which complete texts of LAB and these other non-biblical writings have survived makes comparison difficult and, probably, subjective. In the case of 4 Ezra, however, some verbal similarities with LAB in the Latin text, vocabulary, and style may be detected; but the list of these similarities provided by James (pp. 54-58) provides no solid evidence for verbal overlap in anything but a very limited sense.

7.2.1 There is a correspondence of characters (which may include the persona projected as the governing voice of the current text): this is perhaps most extensive with Jubilees, but a number of other texts are also related to LAB in this manner. (AS)

7.2.1.1 This also constitutes a correspondence with a biblical text (7.1.1).

7.2.2 The overall chronological and spatial framework of the narrative, as well as certain events, are substantially or prominently co-extensive with that of a non-biblical narrative or with some extended part of it: again, most prominently with Jubilees. (AS)

7.2.2.2 This co-extension also constitutes a co-extension with a biblical text; or, this “niche” relationship also constitutes a “niche” relationship with a biblical text (7.1.2.1/7.1.2.3).

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8.1 Standard forms or contents formulated in set phrases, set sentence formats, or clauses in a standard syntactic connection.

8.1.2 [Unconditional norm: where these are also found in the partner Bible texts; for example 11:6-13.] Occasional.

8.1.4.1 The expressive use of unmarked biblical wording whose function in the text’s discourse is enhanced or achieved by it being recognised as coming from a Scripture:

8.1.9 The a fortiori argument: at least once, at LAB 62:6 in David's direct speech. (AS)

8.1.10 List sentence enumerating items by words or phrases: Frequent: these include genealogical lists; lists of names of persons involved in events; lists of events (for example, plagues on Egypt, 10:1), etc.

8.1.16 Descriptive sentence of a static (ocular) structure or "scientific" descriptive sentence: occasional, as at 11:3.

8.1.18 Sentence making a prediction of a future event: occasional, for example, 13:10; 28:9; 48:1.

8.1.19 Prediction of reward or punishment of behaviour in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: occasional, for example, 3:10; 19:13; 23:13; 28:10.

8.1.20 Recommendation of a particular behaviour or statement of an ideal type of person in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: NOT SURE of Moses 20:16.

8.1.21 Statement describing a reality (nature, creation, human nature) in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: rare, possibly includes the mysterious poem which David sang to Saul (60:2-3).

8.4 Small poetic form:

8.4.1 Occurrence of a song, poetic piece, rhythmic unit: Frequent: Lament (24:6; 28:5; 33:6; 40:5-7); Blessing (21:10; 24:3; 26:6; 27:13; 31:9); Psalm or Song (21:9; 32:1-12; 60:1-2).

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9.6 An extended portion or substantial proportion of the text continuously explicates local thematic transitions, by means of:

9.6.1 Use of conjunctions: this is the almost invariable manner in which LAB connects the constituent parts of the text, small or large. The use of "et" is pervasive, at times to the point of monotony.

9.6.3 Use of explicit reference to the textual position or sequence of information which articulates the passage as having coordinated parts: The conjunction "et" again and again precedes "then"; "now"; "after these things"; "thus"; it came to pass", and "behold". Its frequency may provide an indicator that LAB was originally composed in Hebrew (or possibly Aramaic).

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11.2 The text is dominated by the reporting of emplotted events, whether or not in an overarching narrative format (4).

11.2.1 The reported events are those of a biblical past, or of a biblically foretold future: A minority of the reported events are not biblical, but are strongly related to the biblical past and, occasionally, to a biblically described future.

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12.1 Sampling of genre labels applied to the text in secondary literature: Rewritten Bible; paraphrastic continuous narrative; texte continue; chronicle; story-as-discoursed.

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Bibliography:

Text: G. Kisch, Pseudo-Philo's Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1949); D. J. Harrington, J. Cazeaux, C. Perrot, and P.-M. Bogaert, Pseudo-Philon: Les Antiquites Bibliques, 2 vols. Sources Chretiennes 229-230 (Paris: Cerf, 1976);  [Hebrew retrotranslation: D. J. Harrington, The Hebrew Fragments of Pseudo-Philo's Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum Preserved in the Chronicles of Jerahmeel (Missoula, MT: SBL, 1974)]. 

Translations.  M. R. James, The Biblical Antiquities of Philo (London: SPCK, 1917) (available in 10/09 from: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/bap/index.htm); D. J. Harrington, "Pseudo-Philo", in J. H. Charlesworth (ed.), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2 vols (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1983, 1985), vol. 2, pp. 304-377;  H. Jacobson, A Commentary on Pseudo-Philo's Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum with Latin Text and English Translation, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 1996), vol. 1, pp. 89-194; H. Jacobson, "Pseudo-Philo, Book of Biblical Antiquities", in L. H. Feldman, J. L. Kugel and L. H. Schiffman (eds.), Outside the Bible. Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture, 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society/University of Nebraska Press, 2013), pp. 470–613. German: P. Riessler, "Philo: Das Buch der Biblischen Altertuemer", in Altjuedisches Schrifttum Ausserhalb der Bibel (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1928/1966), pp. 735-861; C. Dietzfelbinger, "Pseudo-Philo: Antiquitates Biblicae (Liber Antquitatum Biblicarum), in Juedische Schriften aus hellenistisch-roemischer Zeit, vol. 2 (Guetersloh: Mohn, 1975). French: J. Cazeaux, C. Perrot, and P.-M.Bogaert, Pseudo-Philon, vol. 1 Sources Chretiennes 229 (Paris: Cerf, 1976).

Studies:  H. Jacobson, "Biblical Quotation and Editorial Function in Pseudo-Philo's Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum", JSP 9 (1989), pp. 47-64;  S. Olyan, "The Israelites Debate Their Options at the Sea of Reeds: LAB 10:3, Its Parallels, and Pseudo-Philo's Ideology and Background", JBL 110 (1991), pp. 75-91; F. J. Murphy, Pseudo-Philo. Rewriting the Bible (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993); B. N. Fisk, Do You Not Remember? Scripture, Story and Exegesis in the Rewritten Bible of Pseudo-Philo, JSP Supp. 37 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001)



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