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4 Maccabees (Researcher: Robert Hayward):
Selected Inventory point(s):
1.1 The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries).

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1.1 The text refers to itself as verbal entity (with implied or explicit boundaries).

1.1.1 The text refers to itself using a genre term, speech act term, verb or other term implying verbal constitution: The text describes itself as "a most philosophical discourse/logos" in frame position (1:1,2).

1.1.2 The text speaks of itself as dealing with an overall theme (subject matter) or purpose, or as consisting of coordinated parts making a whole: Viz. the question whether reason rules over the passions? (1:1-8; 6:31; 7:16; 13:1; 16:2; 18:1-2).

1.1.3 The text uses expressions for characterizing itself as a bounded entity. (PROMPT: "all", "beginning", "some" referring to subject-matter in relation to text): See 1:12, "I shall begin by stating my main principle...and then I shall turn to their story...".

1.1.5 Important text witnesses attest to a heading which is not integrated with the body of the text or with any introductory frame, implying one or more of the kinds of information under 1.1.1–4: The heading 4 Maccabees is attested in Codex Sinaiticus (fourth century CE); Codex Alexandrinus (fifth century CE); and Codex Venetus (ninth century CE) not integrated with the body of the text. The book was known to Eusebius of Caesarea under the title "On the Sovereignty of Reason" (HE III.10.6), and to Jerome under the same title (Contra Pelagianos II.6; De Viris Illustribus 13).

1.2 The text presents its internal sequence of sentences (or larger parts) as mirroring the objective relationships of components in the projected world (an objective order), or projects its subject matter as self-limiting (5.3.). See further under 4, 5.2–5 or 6: There is exclusive, discursive treatment of a non-narrative subject matter. The subject matter is clearly announced as a single theme. Sub-topics within the text are strongly related in coherent fashion to the single, main, stated theme. The main, stated theme (1:1) is an examination of the question whether reason rules over the passions.

1.6 The approximate word count or other indication of comparative size is: c. 8300 words based on the Rahlfs text presented in the Online Critical Pseudepigrapha website (pasted and word-counted as a Word document).

1.7 The text’s Inventory profile should be seen in the light of the following further information on completeness, thematic progression, aesthetic effects, etc.: Although Eusebius (HE III.10.6) and Jerome (Contra Pelagianos II.6; De Viris Illustribus 13) were of the opinion that Josephus had composed this text, which they entitle "On the Sovereignty of Reason", the Greek language and style differ toto caelo from the extant works of Josephus, and as a consequence modern scholarship generally rejects this claimed authorship. The language is, indeed, unusual, and in places sui generis (see 2.4.3 and The author's stated intention of writing a specifically philosophical discourse is underlined by reference to the four philosophical virtues of prudence, justice, courage, and self-control (1:18), by the pervasive appeals to reason, and by the analysis of the actions of the characters introduced into the text with express purpose of illustrating and exemplifying moral values and conduct. The structure of the work is such that the text can "philosophize" at will about the actions and opinions of the introduced characters. The announcement of the over-arching theme (1:1-12) itself receives a philosophical amplification (1:13-35), and is then illustrated with examples drawn from the conduct of the biblical worthies Joseph (2:1-14), Moses (2:15-18), Jacob (2:19-23), and David (3:1-19). These prepare the way for the introduction of the main characters in the text, all of whom are post-biblical, most information about them overlapping with narratives known from 2 Maccabees. Thus the events surrounding Apollonius leading up to the deposition of the high priest Onias III, and Jason's involvement in them are mentioned (3:20-4:26) as necessary introduction to the events leading to and accompanying the death of the martyr Eleazar ((5:1-6:30). The philosophical and moral comments on the nature of this martyrdom and its effects (6:31-7:23) prepare the way for the detailed descriptions and comments on the martydoms of seven sons of one mother (8:1-12:19). These sufferings in their turn are supplemented with further philosophical comment and apostrophising of the virtues and qualities of the martyrs (13:1-14:10). The mother of the seven sons, her character, her exhortations to her children, her own martydom, and her noble perseverance in all her sufferings (14:11-17:6) form a dramatic climax of the work, which closes with a peroration including summary statements stressing the principle tenet of the book, the mother's declarations about the virtues of women, and a short doxology (18:23-24). The terminology of Greek philosophical discourse is in evidence throughout the text; but for all that, the governing voice explicitly directs the adressees towards the Torah and its commandments: see 2:23; 13:13; 15:10, 32; 16:16. One of the principle effects of the martyrs' deaths is the purification of the Jewish people, the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their homeland: see 1:11; 6:27-29; 7:19-22. While there is undoubted thematic overlap between sections of 4 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, that overlap is most evident in the narrative elements relating to the martyr Eleazar and the deaths of the seven brothers and their mother. The overlap in narrative information about the period of Onias III's high priesthood (i.e., between 4 Macc. 4:1-14 and 2 Macc. 3:7-34), however, is partial, in that Heliodorus, a key character in the 2 Macc. narrative, is entirely absent from 4 Macc; and another character, Apollonius, who plays a relatively minor role in 2 Macc., features prominently in 4 Macc. This state of affairs has suggested to some students of the text that the author of 4 Macc. had access to and made use of the original writing of Jason of Cyrene, of which 2 Maccabees is an epitome. This suggestion, however, is uncertain, since 4 Macc., even while explicitly quoting Scripture, feels able to abridge and re-arrange the quoted text: see 18:14 (cf. LXX of Isa. 43:2; 18:15 (cf. LXX of Ps. 34:20); and 18:16 (cf. LXX of Prov. 3:18).

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2.1 The information conveyed in the text defines the perspective of the governing voice in the following way:

2.1.2 The governing voice thematizes how it comes to know the text’s contents or its right to command obedience from the text’s addressee. Its perspective is presented as limited, referring either to evidence, or to personal experience (mere human knowledge): The first person governing voice addresses the reader directly from the outset (1:1-12) with the declared intention of demonstrating, with evidence to be brought forward, the proposition that reason rules over the passions. first person perspective limits the knowledge in a "personal" manner: knowledge filtered through reflected experience and observations of first person voice: The governing voice's knowledge is founded pre-eminently on observations of the behaviour of others, some of them biblical characters (2:1-3:19), but most prominently characters from the period of the Hellenistic crisis, namely the martyr Eleazar and the persecuted mother and her seven sons (3:20-17:24). The personal experience of the governing voice is less in evidence here, but is implied throughout the discussion of these characters. In the case of one narrative detail only does the governing voice apparently give a "source". At 17:1, where the death of the mother of the seven sons is reported, the text states that "some of the bodyguards were saying" that she threw herself into the flames when she was about to be killed.

2.1.7 The governing voice (whether first or third person) is anonymous, that is, is not presented as tied to a specific personal identity (or to personhood in general).

2.2 A first-person voice imposes its perspective on all (or almost all) knowledge or norms conveyed in the text.

2.2.1 The first-person governing voice is identified by an anonymous voice through a proper name or unique description. Points–3 are devoted to the anonymous voice; all other points presuppose the knowledge horizon of the first-person voice, unless otherwise indicated. The introduction of the first-person governing voice of the text has the following characteristics (also applies to self-identification 2.2.2): It consists of minimal or merely formal information (e.g. name and genre/generic contents). It is found at the beginning of the text only.

2.2.3 The first-person governing voice is not identified by name or unique identifier: first person voice which neither identifies itself, nor is identified by another voice.

2.2.4 The number and gender of the first-person governing voice are as follows: predominantly first person singular, ungendered, although the same voice occasionally expresses itself in first person plural (see 1:13, 14; 17:7). See also The first person singular is used. The first person is used but represents a generic “I” (“we”) of discourse and discussion, not the projection of a specific persona: Occasionally this is the case as, for example, at 1:13, 14; 17:7.

2.4 The governing voice defines a horizon of knowledge as shared with the projected addressee by taking for granted the following linguistic usages or references (in selection):

2.4.1 Persons or unique objects referred to by proper name or by technical expression: for persons mentioned or presented in narrative usage; as characters; or topics, for example: Biblical names are common; e.g, Noah (15:31); Moses (2:17); David (3:6,7,15; 16:21; 18:13); Abraham (18:20, 23); Hananiah, Azariah, and Mishael (16:21); non-biblical names are also used without explanation, such as Apollonius (4:2, 4), the martyr Eleazar (1:8 and often), Antiochus Epiphanes, Seleucus Nicanor (3:20; 4:3), and other characters named particularly in 2 Macc.; and ethnic groups biblical and non-biblical (Persians, Israelites, Hebrews, Greeks, and Scythians). for persons quoted with direct speech in a non-narrative co-text, for example: These names are found also in 2 Macc. for Gods/mythical figures/supernatural beings, etc., for example: for locations, for example: Both biblical and non-biblical locations. Judaea is often referred to as "native land", as at 1:11; 4:1, 5, 20; 17:21; 18:4. for documents, texts, books, etc. (identified through being referred to or quoted), for example: The Law (2:5, 5, 8-10; 4:19; 5:25); the "writing of Isaiah" (18:14); inscription on epitaph (17:8-10; this may be fictional, existing only in the mind of the governing voice); The Law and the Prophets (18:10); and the song which Moses taught, = ha'azinu (18:18-19).

2.4.3 The text as a whole routinely employs the following language(s), knowledge of which is taken for granted: Greek, with a striking number of hapax legomena. Additional language(s) taken for granted in quoted speech or certain parts of the text are: Hebrew is taken for granted (see 18:15), but is not quoted.

2.4.4 Special linguistic usages occur pervasively or prominently: The Greek employs a well developed rhetorical style, but makes use of many rare words, neologisms, and unusual modes of expression: the text abounds in compound verbs. The style is somewhat repetitive, the same point being expressed one or more times with the use of slightly different language on each occasion. The text make frequent use of speeches and apostrophe. Technical expressions for a particular subject matter: The technical language of Greek philosophy is common; and the terminology for instruments and forms of torture is specific and refined.

2.5 The text contains deictic or other expressions referring to the governing voice’s time or place, or place it after/before some key event:

2.5.1 as part of the words of the governing voice: at 1:10, "at this time" when encomium of martyrs is uttered (possibly 3:19 refers to the same "time", though this is not certain); 4:1 records that formerly high priesthood had been an office for life, but is so no longer at time of speaking voice. Possibly 4:2, where Apollonius is called governor of Syria, Phoenicia, and Cilicia, these areas being under single governor only from 19 to 72 CE.

2.6 The text presents itself as speaking to certain persons, groups or entities, explicitly projecting a certain image of its addressee: audience is group addressed in 2nd person plural (1:1, 7; 2:24; 3:20; 16:15) and finally defined as "O Israelites, children descended from the seed of Abraham" (18:1).

2.6.1 The governing voice uses apostrophe, second-person grammatical forms or first-person exclusive or inclusive “we”: The governing voice can associate itself with addressees (see 2.6.) through inclusive "we" (e.g., 8:16). Individuals and groups are apostrophised: the priest (7:6); the philosopher (7:7); the father (7:9); the aged man (7:10). Reasoning faculties apostrophised at 14:2, with various virtues and qualities (14:3, 7; 15:1, 13, 16-17; 29-30; 16:14).

2.6.2 The projected addressee is characterized as having a certain moral or epistemic stance, or as standing in contrast to another group’s moral or epistemic stance: Shared with governing voice through inclusive "we" at 17:7, as distinct from group not addressed, referred to in third person as "some" who might ask or say certain things, 1:5; 7:17.

2.6.3 The governing voice uses verbs of epistemic or moral exhortation or employs a “focus marker": Verbs in imperative mood exhort and encourage addressees frequently. See especially 1:30; 2;14; 16:5; and 18:1.

2.6.4 The governing voice directs questions at the projected addressee which are marked as rhetorical or as suggesting the audience assume a particular epistemic or moral stance: Frequent: see (e.g.) 2;1, 24; 13:5; 14:10, 18-19; 17:7, 16.

2.6.5 The governing voice employs exclamatory or declamatory modes of speech (cf. 8.1.13).

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4.2 [The event sequence is projected as related to the sequence of text parts as follows: Items in this section of the Inventory apply only to narrative portions of 4 Maccabees, which are delineated fully at 4.7.1 where aspects of their function are set out.]

4.2.1 [The report sequence mirrors the projected chronological sequence of events mostly or wholly, not precluding 4.2.2–5: The narrative sections of the text catalogued at 4.7.1 follow a clear chronological sequence: this is especially noticeable in the account of the martyrdom of the seven young men, the account of each death being narrated in chronological order.[

4.2.2 [There is use of prolepsis or analepsis: Prolepsis is a feature of the mother's speech in 16:16-23.]

4.6 [There are meta-narrative explanations occurring in the narrative (editorial comments by narrator): Within the sections of narrative which are subordinated to the thematic discourse, all in turn include editorial comments: these narrative sections, and their meta-narrative explanations, are catalogued below at 4.7.1.]

4.7 Within a thematic (non-narrative) framework the text contains extensive telling of continuous and detailed events: the governing voice presents proofs of the arguments which make up its "most philosophical discourse" by using narratives employing temporal and spatial order, to which are appended discourses explaining the significance of these narrative items.

4.7.1 This narrative material is explicitly subservient to and integrated into a thematic discourse or thematic description (see under 5): The narrative elements in 4 Maccabees appear in three major blocks (see below), and are all presented to exemplify, demonstrate, and amplify the theoretical statement, which constitutes the over-arching theme of the discourse, that "reason rules over the passions". This narrative material begins with 5:1-4, where Eleazar is brought before Antiochus: the narrative is then interrupted by two extended speeches, the first by Antiochus (5:5-13), and the second by Eleazar (5:16-38), which is introduced by a narrative section (5:14-15). Eleazar is depicted by the governing voice as a paragon of Judaism (5:4-5); and his actions described in the narrative, combined with his philosophical reflections expressed in the speeches (see especially his insistence that Jews must live according to the Law, 5:16-24 and following), pave the way for the governing voice's presentation of all the other characters who are presented in the narrative blocks. The narrative of Eleazar's martyrdom follows (6:1-3); this, too, contains a speech of philosophical reflection (6:17-23). The second "block" of narrative tells of the martyrdom of the seven brothers (8:2-12:19). This, also, is punctuated by speeches and philosophical observations by the governing voice. Thus, the beginning of the narrative (8:2-15) contains a speech by Antiochus (8:5-11), and gives way to the governing voice's observations and hypothetical arguments (1:16-25a) before resuming its course (8:26b-9:9) and concluding with a speech of the seven brothers (9:1-9). The narrative accounts of each of the martyrdoms in sequence (9:10-25; 9:26-32; 10:1-11; 10:12-21; 11:1-12; 11:13-27; 12:1-19) include speeches. The third section of narrative concerns the mother's death, and is made up of 15:6-15; 16:12-13; 16:24-17:1, with speeches and philosophical observations included.

4.9 [There is prominent or sustained characterization of key figures in the narrative: This inventory item applies to those sections of narrative within the thematic discourse delineated above at 4.7.1.]

4.9.1 [There is editorial comment on the qualities of a character from a third-person narrator: This applies to all the characters appearing in the narrative section delineated in 4.7.1, examples of which would include the characterisation of Eleazar (6:8-23), the brothers as a group (8:15-9:9), and the mother of the seven sons (16:1-15).]

4.9.3 [A figure is characterized by her or his moral or religious traits: This applies to all the Jewish characters in the narrative sections delineated in 4.7.1, and is indeed a prominent and pervasive element in those narratives.]

4.9.4 [A figure is characterized by her or his intellectual gifts or understanding: Within the narrative sections of the text as delineated in 4.7.1, the Jewish characters (Eleazar, the seven brothers, and their mother) all display gifts of understanding which are expressed in their actions and especially in their speeches, which regularly punctuate the narrative.]

4.9.5 [A figure is characterized by physical prowess or beauty, or their opposites: Within the narrative sections delineated in 4.7.1, for example, the seven sons are described as handsome and noble and of fine aspect: see 8:3-4.]

4.10 [A character’s relations to her/his community are foregrounded, including any two-fold social environment (e.g. a diaspora setting).]

4.10.1 [A main character is portrayed as being integrated in one societal environment but as in conflict with a second environment: Within the narrative sections delineated in 4.7.1, all the Jewish characters are portrayed as being intensely loyal to their Jewish inheritance, and in conflict with the non-Jewish environment represented by Antiochus and his officers.]

4.11 [Supernatural characters appear in the narrative, whether introduced casually, or accounted for elaborately.]

4.13 [The narrative pace is slowed down or changed by frequent or prominent quotation of speech, thought or text.]

4.13.1 [The quotation constitutes a plot-driving event in its own right: Within the narrative sections whose function is delineated in 4.7.1, speeches (examples are listed in the 4.7.1 entry), often of some length, are employed which are integral to the plot and essential to its progress.]

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5.6 The text pervasively provides explicit links between successive sub-topics, without at the same time mirroring an objective order as in 5.2–5 or in some other manner; the text is also not a case of 3.1.

5.6.1 The text constitutes a conceptual inquiry into the accuracy or validity of universal claims regarding facts or norms. The inquiry prominently proceeds by juxtaposing and discussing mutually exclusive claims, or alternative (or hypothetical) world projections: The governing voice's claim that reason exercises control over the passions is put to the test, with counterclaims being presented: e.g., 2:24, "How then, you might say, if reason is master of the passions, does it not control forgetfulness and ignorance?" (Trans. deSilva, p. 9). Some or most of the units so opposed to each other are ascribed (whether verbatim or not) to real, imaginary or hypostasized speakers: Hypothetical arguments against the governing voice's claim are put into the mouths of characters at (e.g.,) 8:16-26; 16:5-11.

5.9 The text’s governing voice projects the accuracy or validity of its statements as:

5.9.3 Pervasively in need of support by arguments, or open to discussion: the governing voice's description of theme as "logos" in 1:1 implies discourse and discursive treatment of topic.

5.9.4 The following argument types occur: Predominantly or exclusively conceptual arguments (e.g. inferences, analogies, or references to evidence): Such arguments are well represnted by passages like 7:16-23; 5:16-26; and the governing voice pervasively draws information from the actions and speeches of the martyrs to present arguments in favour of the over-arching theme that reasons rules over the passions.

5.10 The governing voice ascribes statements about the text’s thematic substance pervasively or prominently to speaker characters as utterances.

5.10.1 Isolated utterances (or dialogues) are presented without a unifying emplotment, but tacitly presuppose a unified grid of story/history: The speech nonetheless presupposes a unified story grid of times and places and persons as (e.g.) speeches of Antiochus to Eleazar (5:6-13); Eleazar to Antiochus (5:16-38); Antiochus to mother of 7 sons (8:5-11); sons to Antiochus (9:1-9); individual speeches by each of 7 sons (9:15-12:18); and mother's speeches (16:16-23; 18:7-9) in story of Antiochus' persecution of the Jews.

5.10.2 The text’s governing voice presents the speech of characters mostly in the exclusive function of disagreeing/agreeing with, or providing the reason for, a statement expressed by that governing voice.

5.10.4 Hypothetical speech is routinely or prominently put into the mouth of hypostasised or generic characters: This is a noticeable feature of the text, and important examples include 8:16-26, the kind of arguments the seven brothers might have employed had they been cowards; and 16:5-11, the kind of lamentation the mother of the seven brothers might have made as they faced death. These hypothetical speeches parallel the use of hypothetical arguments of the sort represented by 13:1-4.

5.12 The text is about the meaning of historical or narrative events without thereby becoming either narrative (contrast 4.7) or lemmatic: While the thematic discourse governs the use of extended, sequential narrative (see 4.7.1 and other items in section 4, where this chronologically organized narrative sequence is described), 4 Maccabees additionally refers to the specific meaning of other events as understood by the governing voice, and without at all becoming narrative involving emplotment. This is so in the case of narrative sentences involving the biblical characters Joseph (2:1-6), Moses (2:15-17), Jacob (2:18-20), and David (3:6-18); and the narratives concerning the non-biblical characters Apollonius, Simon, Onias III, Selecus, and Antiochus given in 3:19-4:26.

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7.1 Narrative or thematic correspondences, or overlap of specific wording, occur between a non-biblical text and one or more biblical texts in a manner that is prominent or pervasive.

7.1.3 There is prominent use of explicit quotations of biblical wording, whether in non-narrative or in narrative (but not in biblical commentary, for which see section 6): For example, 2:5, which quotes LXX of Deut. 5:21; Exod. 20:17; 2:19, which quotes LXX of Gen. 49:7; 17:19, which quotes LXX of Deut. 33:3; 18:14, which offers a shortened version of LXX of Isa. 43:2; 18:15, quoting LXX Ps. 34:20 somewhat edited; 18:16, citing Prov. 3:18 in form differing slightly from LXX version; 18:17, quoting LXX of Ezek. 37:3; and 18:19, which combines elements of LXX of Deut. 32:39, 37 and 30:20.

7.1.4 The text shares features of language with the Hebrew Bible, or exhibits tacit overlap with specific biblical wording, whether narrative or not. There are pervasive biblical linguistic features (vocabulary, morphology or syntax) or a pervasive use of unspecific biblical language, such as generic biblical phrases or single words: For biblical allusions without quotation formulae, see especially references to the sacrifice of Isaac in Gen. 22 given at 7:14-15; 13:12; 16:20-21; 18:11; mention of the three young men in the furnace of fire described in Dan. 3 (13:9; 16:3, 21-22; 18:12); and the story of Daniel in the lions' den told in Dan. 6 (16:3, 21; 18:13). The text contains prominently, but not necessarily frequently, the wording of specific biblical passages such as whole sentences or unique biblical phrases, used in a tacit manner. See also The tacit overlap of specific wording extends regularly to whole sentences or to extensive sentence groupings, found alongside sentences or sentence parts not found in that biblical partner text: See, for example, the account of David's thirst (3:6-16) and its overlap with 2 Sam. 23:13-17; and, to a lesser extent, the account of Aaron's intervention in the Qorah incident (7:11-12) and its overlap with Numb. 17:1-15. The tacit overlap of wording takes place across language boundaries, with respect to the current language of the text (this point does not apply to 6.13 cases): 4 Maccabees tends to quote Scripture, and to make allusion to it, using the Old Greek (LXX) version.

7.1.5 The projected persona of the governing voice of the text, whether a narrative or not, is also known from a biblical text, or the governing voice assumes an epistemic stance similar to that of a biblical text. The epistemic stance of the governing voice (narrative or not, first person or not) can be interpreted as falling into the same generic category as one of the following stances also adopted in biblical texts: The conveyance of wisdom on the basis of personal experience or learning, as in Proverbs, Qohelet.

7.1.8 The non-narrative text pervasively or prominently presupposes the narrative fabric of biblical events/reported speech, beyond the contents of any specific biblical quotations that may occur: The use of the narrative fabric of biblical events is occasional, but clear as at 3:5-16; 16:20-23. The text presupposing biblical narrative fabric has a thematic structure of discourse or description: the governing voice illustrates theme with examples drawn from biblical and post-biblical narratives with their own temporal and spatial order taken for granted as known to reader. The principal biblical narratives employed are those of Joseph (4 Macc. 2:1-14), Moses (4 Macc. 2:15-18), Jacob (4 Macc. 2:19-23), and David (4 Macc. 3:1-19).

7.2 Narrative or thematic correspondences, or overlap of specific wording, occur between the non-biblical text under discussion and other non-biblical texts in a manner that is prominent or pervasive: There are narrative and thematic correspondences between this text and 2 Macc. 3:4-7:42 which are prominent and pervasive.

7.2.1 There is a correspondence of characters (which may include the persona projected as the governing voice of the current text): Thus Apollonius, Simon, Onias III, Seleucus and Antiochus Epiphanes feature in 4 Macc. 3:4-6:11, paralleling their appearance in the narrative of 2 Macc. 3:4-6:17. The martyr Eleazar's suffering are described in 2 Macc. 6:18-31; and the narrative of the seven brothers and their mother follows in 2 Macc. 7:1-42; 4 Macc. 5:1 ff. tells of the same characters.

7.2.2 The overall chronological and spatial framework of the narrative, as well as certain events, are substantially or prominently co-extensive with that of a non-biblical narrative or with some extended part of it: The non-biblical narrative information used by 4 Maccabees to illustrate and exemplify its contention that reason is master of the passions is drawn from 2 Macc. 3:4 ff., and presupposes throughout the same chronological and spatial framework. The post-biblical narratives overlap to a considerable extent with passages in 2 Maccabees, most especially the account of events in the time of Onias III and Jason (2 Macc. 3:1-5:4); the story of the martyr Eleazar (2 Macc. 6:18-31); and the deaths of the seven brothers and their mother (2 Macc.7:1-51

7.2.9 The sequence of themes in (at least) substantial parts of the non-narrative text is tacitly isomorphic with the sequence of themes in another non-biblical text: Some themes are tacitly isomorphic with 2 Maccabees 3:7-7:42; in particular 4 Macc. 5:1-12:19, where the sequence of the story about the martyr Eleazar, and the seven brothers and their mother, is provided by 2 Macc. 6:18-7:41. Shared themes occur largely or entirely in the same sequence, albeit separated by other themes: See (e.g.) 3:20-21/2Macc. 3:1-3; 4:1-14/2Macc. 3:4-40; 4:15-20/2Macc. 4:7-17; 4:21-23/2Macc. 5:1-26; 4:24-26/2Macc. 6:1-11; 5:1-6:30/2Mac. 6:18-31; 8:1-17:1/2Mac. 7:1-42.

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8.1 Standard forms or contents formulated in set phrases, set sentence formats, or clauses in a standard syntactic connection. The expressive use of unmarked biblical wording whose function in the text’s discourse is enhanced or achieved by it being recognised as coming from a Scripture: For Bible, see Inventory point; and for expressive use of wording from 2 Macc., see Inventory point 7.2.

8.1.10 List sentence (enumerating items by lexeme, phrase or incomplete clause): Rare, but at least one very striking example at 8:14, a list of instruments of torture.

8.1.13 Declamatory sentence, confession, or proclamative affirmation:

8.1.14 Prayer, doxology, valediction or blessing: (In the governing voice): doxology in frame position,18:23-24.

8.1.19 Prediction of reward or punishment of behaviour in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: See, for example, 16:24-25.

8.1.20 Recommendation of a particular behaviour or statement of an ideal type of person in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: See, for example, 2:18.

8.1.22 Statement praising Torah in a “wisdom” or similar formulation: See, for example, 2:23.

8.2 Non-narrative small literary forms that impose on their components a standard functional relationship to each other, while grammar and syntax may vary:

8.2.5 The summary exposition, in a number of sentences, of theological ideas: See, for example, 3:17-18; 17:22; and also what amounts to a "florilegium" of teaching of the Torah and Prophets at 18:10-20 (the latter in the quoted speech of a character).

8.4 Small poetic form: At 16:6-11 a hypothetical lament in the governing voice is put into the mouth of the mother of the seven martyred brothers.

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9.1 An extended portion or substantial proportion of the thematic text (or thematic part of a non-thematic text) projects its selection and sequence of themes as mirroring an objective order in the projected world, by one of the following means: Thus the treatment of Eleazar (5:1-6:35), the 7 sons (8:1-12:19) and their mother (14:12-15:32) are distinct sub-topics which contribute incrementally to the whole theme.

9.6 An extended portion or substantial proportion of the text continuously explicates local thematic transitions, by means of:

9.6.5 Use of ordinal or cardinal numbers to designate themes in text sequence (e.g., “first generation”): 8:3-12:9 arranged according to the order of the seven brothers' sufferings, from first to seventh, concluding with the mother's sufferings.

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11.1 The non-narrative text projects its thematic concern as being mainly one or more of the following:

11.1.2 Moral values or value judgments, including practical instructions on proper behaviour or self-preservation: These are pervasive, and both explicit and implicit. Since "reason rules the passions", moral and ethical values and guidance follow. The book provides philosophical arguments to support a discourse of argument and persuasion, making a case for its principle and repeated contention.

11.1.4 A discourse on or inquiry into a field of knowledge, with self-referential treatment of the limits, sources or nature of knowledge.

11.2 events of the past (or of the future, but not of norms)

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12.1 Sampling of genre labels applied to the text in secondary literature: Diatribe; encomium; eulogy; synagogue sermon or homily; epitaphios logos; epideictic composition; discussion of philosophical thesis; apologia; protreptic.

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Text: A. Rahlfs, Septuaginta, 2 vols (Stuttgart: Wuerttembergische Bibelanstalt, 1935), vol. 1, pp. 1157-1184.  Text of Codex Sinaiticus in D. A. deSilva, 4 Maccabees, Septuagint Commentary Series (Leiden: Brill, 2006), pp. 2-62, with English translation. See also M. P. Adams, "The Alexandrinus Text of 4 Maccabees", JSP 17 (2008), pp. 207-213. The text offered in Rahlfs is available online also: D. M. Miller and K. M. Penner (eds.), "4 Maccabees." Edition 1.0. No pages. In The Online Critical Pseudepigrapha. Edited by Ken M. Penner, David M. Miller, and Ian W. Scott. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. Online: (accessed 22nd June 2011).

Translations: R. B. Townshend, "4 Maccabees", in R. H. Charles (ed.), The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 2 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913), vol. 2, pp. 653-685; C. W. Emmet, The Fourth Book of Maccabees, Translations of Early Documents, Series II: Hellenistic-Jewish Texts 6 (London: SPCK, 1918); M. Hadas, The Third and Fourth Books of Maccabees (New York: Harper, 1953); H. Anderson, "4 Maccabees", in J. H. Charlesworth (ed.), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2 vols (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1983, 1985), vol. 2, pp. 531-564; S. Westerholm, "4 Makkabees", in A. Pietersma and B. G. Wright (ed.), A New English Translation of the Septuagint (New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 531-541; D. A. deSilva "4 Maccabees", in L. H. Feldman, J. L. Kugel and L. H. Schiffman (eds.), Outside the Bible. Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society/University of Nebraska Press, 2013), pp. 2362–2398. German:  H.-J. Klauck, 4 Makkabaeerbuch, JSHRZ 3.6 (Guetersloh: Mohn, 1989). French: A. Dupont-Sommer, Le Quatrieme Livre des Machabees (Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honore Champion, 1939).

Studies:  B. Dehandschutter, "Martyrium und Agon: Ueber die Wurzeln der  Vorstellung vom agon in vierten Makkabaeerbuch", in J. W. van Henten (ed.), Die  Entstehung der juedischen Martyrologie (Leiden: Brill, 1989), pp. 215-219; H.-J. Klauck, "Brotherly Love in Plutarch and Four Maccabees", in D. L. Balch (eds.), E. Ferguson, and W. A. Meeks, Greeks, Romans, Christians (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1990), pp. 144-156;  G. W. Bowersock, Ignatius and IV Maccabees (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995); J. W. van Henten, The Maccabean Martyrs as Saviors of the Jewish People (Leiden: Brill, 1997); D. A. deSilva, 4 Maccabees, Septuagint Commentary Series (Leiden: Brill, 2006); D. A. deSilva, " '...And Not a Drop to Drink': The Story of David's Thirst in the Jewish Scriptures, Josephus, and 4 Maccabees", JSP 16 (2006), pp. 15-40.

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